Middle East

All Commons Briefing Papers
129 Documents
DateDescription
14.11.2016Balfour Declaration
As its centenary approaches, this paper examines contemporary views on the Balfour Declaration.
08.11.2016ISIS/Daesh: the military response in Iraq and Syria
US-led air strikes against ISIS continue in Iraq and Syria, alongside a training programme to build the capacity of Iraqi security forces and local fighters. The UK has been conducting airstrikes against ISIS in Iraq since September 2014 and has been providing training assistance to Iraqi security forces and the Kurdish Peshmerga. Following a vote in Parliament in December 2015 the UK expanded its air campaign into Syria. The campaign to liberate Mosul in northern Iraq has begun and attention is increasingly focused on the eventual liberation of Raqqa in Syria.
11.10.2016Iraq and Syria update October 2016
What has been happening on the ground in Iraq and Syria?
25.08.2016The Occupied Palestinian Territories: recent developments
Security conditions have been worsening in the West Bank and Gaza in recent months, while the two-state solution seems to be going nowhere. The Palestinian leadership's attempts to gain state recognition have had some success, but have not improved the situation on the ground, as politics in both Israel and the Occupied Territories seem to become less conducive to a negotiated settlement.
22.07.2016Israel and the Palestinians: no through road?
This Commons Library briefing paper has been archived as it no longer offers up-to-date information. However, we have published other papers which may be of interest.
15.07.2016Religious persecution in the Middle East and its effect on the UK
Religious persecution has been on the rise in the Middle East.
06.07.2016The Chilcot Inquiry: a reading list
A selection of Commons Library briefings and other material relevant to the Chilcot Inquiry
05.07.2016Russian foreign and security policy
How is Russian foreign policy made, and what are the motive forces behind it? How does that play out around the world and in Russian relations with the West?
04.07.2016NATO Summit Warsaw 2016: a primer
This House of Commons Library briefing paper looks ahead to the NATO Summit in Warsaw on 8-9th July 2016. Topping the agenda is NATO's response to Russia, instability in the Middle East and North Africa, and defence spending.
01.07.2016The Chilcot Inquiry
The Iraq Inquiry, set up in 2009 and chaired by Sir John Chilcot, was originally expected to report within months. It will now be published on 6 July 2016
29.06.2016Nuclear Weapons - Country Comparisons
There are nine countries in the world that have nuclear weapons. Between them they possess an estimated 15,900 nuclear warheads. This paper is intended as a brief guide to which countries possess nuclear weapons and how they are seeking to either modernise or expand those capabilities. It is also part of a wider Library briefing series on nuclear weapons.
10.06.2016Commons Library briefing: Syrian refugees and the UK response
The Government is working to resettle up to 20,000 Syrian refugees in the UK by the end of this Parliament, under its Syrian Vulnerable Person Resettlement scheme. It has also recently agreed to provide some resettlement places to vulnerable children currently in the Middle East and North Africa, and for some unaccompanied children already in Europe (including Syrian nationals).
10.06.2016Yemen at war
The conflict in Yemen is causing massive suffering to Yemenis. It has recently ground to a halt, with neither side able to achieve decisive gains, but a political settlement remains elusive. Questions have been raised about the use of UK-supplied armaments.
15.04.2016Declaring Daesh massacres 'genocide'
The House of Commons will debate a motion calling on the Government to recognise ISIS/Daesh killings as 'genocide'.
12.03.2016Local authority boycotts
This note discusses proposals to restrict the ability of local authorities to carry out boycotts.
07.03.2016The People's Mujahiddin of Iran (PMOI)
The People's Mujahiddin of Iran (PMOI) or Mujahiddin e Khalq (MEK) is a group of exiled Iranians opposed to the government of Iran. It is a member of a wider coalition known as the National Council of Resistance in Iran. PMOI/MEK was put on to the Government's list of proscribed terrorist organisations in March 2001. This note describes the proscription of the PMOI in the UK and EU and subsequent removal of the organisation from both the UK and EU proscription lists in June 2008 and January 2009 respectively.
26.02.2016Egypt under Sisi
The political aftermath of the military coup that removed Muslim Brotherhood has been rough on the Muslim Brotherhood and other opponents of the new government; the airline crash in the Sinai underlined growing security worries. Nevertheless, President al-Sisi remains popular with large segments of the population, however.
24.02.2016Political reforms and human rights in Bahrain
Repression continues in Bahrain in an increasingly tense regional environment
04.02.2016Seeking a negotiated solution in Syria
Political negotiations between the major powers may have been given a boost by events in Syria and Paris, but big differences remain. Meanwhile, the Syrian parties did not participate in the latest round of talks
01.12.2015Legal basis for UK military action in Syria
What is the legal significance of the November 2015 UN Security Council Resolution for the UK and other states using force in Iraq and/or Syria?
30.11.2015Syria: a reading list
This is a reading list that covers the situation in Syria, the complexity of battling Syrian groups and of outside interventions, the legal implications of any UK intervention and other aspects that will form part of one of the House's most significant debates of recent years.
27.11.2015Iraq and Syria - developments in 2015
After the Paris attacks, the pressure for Western countries to do more about ISIS has grown. Is that leading them to downgrade the violence perpetrated in Syria by the government of Bashar al-Assad?
20.10.2015UK drone attack in Syria: legal questions
The UK drone attack in Syria that killed two British men raises many legal questions. Was it self-defence? What about the laws of war? How does human rights law apply? What is the legal significance of the attack?
16.10.2015The Lausanne Accord with Iran
The nuclear negotiations with Iran took a big step forward with the announcement of a framework for a full agreement, to be signed by the end of June 2015. Will they make it across the finishing line?
19.05.2015Key Issues for the 2015 Parliament
This book examines the key issues facing the House of Commons over the course of the 2015 Parliament - from the public finances to the UK's membership of the EU and from school places for children to climate change.
26.03.2015Election in Israel
A parliamentary election took place in Israel on 17 March 2015. No party won an overall majority, but Likud - the centre-right party of Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu - remained the largest party. This note provides a summary of developments.
19.03.2015In brief: UK aid to Iraq
Figures for UK humanitarian aid to Iraq
19.03.2015ISIS and the sectarian conflict in the Middle East
The radical jihadis of ISIS still control large areas of Iraq and Syria, despite the international campaign against them. But who are they really?
24.02.2015In brief: accession of Palestine to the International Criminal Court (ICC)
Palestine has acceded to the Rome Statue - the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court.
13.02.2015Yemen: back to the brink
As fighters from the Houthi movement have taken over the Yemeni Capital Sanaa, the situation in Yemen appears to be critical again, and the UK government has withdrawn its staff from the embassy there.
18.12.2014In Brief: Progress against ISIS December 2014
A brief summary of the progress of the military campaign against ISIS in Iraq and Syria.
18.12.2014Bahrain and the UK: 2014 controversies
The UK's political and security relationship with Bahrain is disputed even though the protests that began in 2011 are subsiding. This briefing summarises the controversies
03.10.2014International status of Palestine
Which countries have extended diplomatic recognition to Palestine? What is the status of Palestine at the United Nations?
25.09.2014Iraq, Syria and ISIS - recent developments
The advance of ISIS in Iraq and Syria seems to have been slowed, but Western and regional states are struggling to formulate a convincing response to it
01.09.2014Gaza ceasefire agreement
A summary of the Gaza ceasefire agreement of August 26, which put an end to hostilities between Israel and Palestinian militants.
18.08.2014UK arms transfers to the Peshmerga in Iraqi Kurdistan
After rapid advances by the Islamic State (formerly known as ISIS or ISIL) towards Erbil, the capital of the Iraqi Kurdish Region, the UK government has indicated that it may send arms to the Peshmerga, the Kurdish Regional Government's security force.
22.07.2014Hostilities in Gaza: latest developments
An overview of the latest developments in the conflict between Israel and Palestinian militants in Gaza.
21.07.2014Syrian refugees in Jordan
Enormous numbers of Syrians have taken refuge in Jordan, putting strain on the small country's resources. The House of Commons International Development Committee visited recently and voiced concern about Jordan's political stability.
08.07.2014Worsening humanitarian crisis in Syria and Iraq
The plight of civilians in Syria may be about to get a lot worse, as drought ravages the region, ISIS takes over much of the River Euphrates and government services threaten to collapse.
02.07.2014Abduction and murder of Israeli teenagers
Briefing on current tensions in the West Bank following the abduction and murder of three Israeli teenagers.
01.07.2014Formation of new Palestinian government
Briefing on Fatah-Hamas reconciliation, formation of new Palestinian government, and international reaction.
20.06.2014Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) and the takeover of Mosul
ISIS has shocked observers by the speed of its takeover of large amounts of Iraqi territory
12.06.2014Election against a background of violence in Syria
A presidential election was held in Syria in June against a background of increasing violence across the region.
16.05.2014Negotiation with Iran: update May 2014
An impoortant second stage of negotiations on Iran's nuclear programme started in May.
03.04.2014Lebanon 2014
28.03.2014The latest round of Israeli/Palestinian talks, 2013-14
Attitudes to US Secretary of State's drive to revive the Middle East peace process have generally been pessimistic. Is that justified?
19.03.2014Prospects for Afghanistan as ISAF withdrawal approaches
2014 is a pivotal year for Afghanistan, with a crucial presidential election in April and the end of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) combat mission in December. Security overall is deteriorating in Afghanistan and although the Afghan National Security Forces are taking the lead, questions remain about their effectiveness and the government's dependence on international help to pay for them. It is unclear whether there will be any Western military presence after 2014. Negotiations with the Taliban do not seem to offer much hope.
20.12.2013The Prawer-Begin Plan
There has been a lot of controversy about the Prawer-Begin plan to relocate some of Israel's semi-nomadic Bedouin population to approved towns, with the UN Human Rights Council saying that it violates Bedouin rights and is discriminatory. In December it was announced that the bill would be substantially amended after opposition from both left- and right-wing politicians in the Knesset.
12.12.2013Interpal
The UK charity collects money for Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza and in Lebanon and Jordan. It has been the subject of controversy because of allegations that money distributed by it has gone to promote terrorism. After some delays it has been cleared by the Charity Commission, but it is still a Specially Designated Global Terrorist organisation, on the US Treasury's list.
26.11.2013Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius: carrots v sticks
Another victory for Vladimir Putin?
04.11.2013Recent developments in Iran
Does the election of Hassan Rouhani in iran mean that the nuclear crisis will be resolved?
25.10.2013Azerbaijan and the 2013 presidential election
Human rights abuses were widely reported to be increasing in the run up to the 2013 election in Azerbaijan
18.10.2013Qatar 2013
Qatar has the highest standard of living in the world and has been raising its international profile, not without controversy
05.09.2013In brief: National positions on Syria intervention
04.09.2013US Government and Congress Response to Syria
A look at the political situation in the US after President Obama's surprise decision to seek Congressional authorisation on Syria.
29.08.2013Sanctions on Syria: existing EU/UK measures
29.08.2013Conditions for using force in humanitarian intervention
Could the Government's legal position on intervention in Syria contribute to setting a new precedent?
29.08.2013Military interventions: some comparisons
28.08.2013Intervention in Syria
Interntional intervention in Syria appears to be imminent. Is it practical or legal
14.08.2013The Kurds: new perspectives?
Upheaval in the Middle East is bringing about a re-alignment in relation to the Kurds.
04.07.2013Coup in Egypt
A brief survey of the Egyptian military's removal of President Mohamed Mursi.
02.07.2013Palestine: update 2013
18.06.2013Syria: The legality of arming the rebels after the lifting of the EU arms embargo
Would arming the Syrian rebels be illegal, notwithstanding the lifting of the EU arms embargo?
09.05.2013Israel's new government
A brief summary of the new Israeli government and of the domestic and international issues facing it.
26.04.2013United Arab Emirates uncovered
The latest development from the oil-rich nation of United Arab Emirates
17.04.2013Military forces in Syria and the rise of the jihadis
Sunni fundamentalist groups are now thought by some to be the most important force in the Syrian rebellion.
26.03.2013Syria: The EU embargo and moves to arm the opposition
Both the UK and France have called for the rebel forces in Syria to be armed but there is an EU arms embargo on the country.
05.12.2012Israeli settlements and the E1 area
Statistics and commentary on Israeli sttlements in the Occupied Territories
01.11.2012In brief: Syria's bloody stalemate
A brief update on events in Syria since August 2012
30.08.2012Syria: no end in sight?
In summer 2012, the tempo of the Syrian conflict suddenly appeared to quicken. After long months during which many predicted a stalemate between the two sides, a bomb killed some of the Syrian government's top security personnel, the authorities appeared to be losing control of much larger areas of the country, and more senior figures defected, including the Prime Minister.
02.08.2012Arab uprisings: an update
Two of the three countries that have had elections since the Arab uprisings - Tunisia and Egypt - have seen mainstream and more radical Islamists dominating. In Libya, the third of the three, a pragmatic and relatively secular politician who had been former Prime Minister during the rebellion did well. It is still early to know what these new governments will do.
28.06.2012Turkey: recent developments
Turkey in the first half of 2012 has perhaps taken one step forward and two steps back. It is shifting towards a more 'normal' foreign policy; but it has made little progress towards EU accession; there has been a resurgence of violence around the Kurdish issue; and human rights seem to be slipping.
30.05.2012Bahrain: an update
Despite some progress in Bahrain, most reports suggest that the reform programme has been half-hearted at best. Unrest and reports of abuse continue and some fear an impending crisis.
23.05.2012Egypt's presidential election 2012
Egyptians vote on 23 and 24 May to elect a new president. If no candidate wins 50%, a second round will be held on 16 and 17 June. There are signs, however, of a looming crisis over the division of power and the role of the military.
10.05.2012Armenia 2012
Armenia has recently held a parliamentary election that appeared to show that the country's political culture is making some progress. There remain two big problems in Armenia's relations with other countries: its occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh, which observers fear may spark another war, and the argument over whether the 1915 massacres amounted to genocide.
09.05.2012The Syrian Crisis: Update May 2012
On 21 March, the UN Security Council supported a peace plan devised by Kofi Annan that called for a ceasefire, humanitarian access to Syria and the withdrawal of forces from urban areas. All sides declared their willingness to adhere to the plan. The Annan plan is at present the only hope of ending the accelerating violence in Syria, which has now caused more than 9,000 deaths, according to UN estimates.
26.04.2012Palestine update 2012
Talks between the Israelis and the Palestinians on a two-state solution have stalled, with scarcely any meetings since 2010, but the Palestinian question has been displaced from the headlines by the crisis in Syria and mounting concerns about the Iranian nuclear programme.
15.03.2012Is it legal to use force against Iran?
The answer to this question depends largely on your view of whether Iran is about to use nuclear weapons.
02.02.2012Palestinian elections?
A date of 4 May has been agreed for Palestinian legislative and presidential elections. Observers are unsure whether they will in fact take place on that date, as much depends on the fraught reconciliation negotiations between Hamas and Fatah.
20.12.2011Drone attacks and the killing of Anwar al-Awlaqi: legal issues
Anwar al-Awlaqi, a dual US-Yemeni citizen described as the 'leader of external operations for Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula', was killed by a US drone attack in Yemen on 30 September 2011. Whether this was legal under international or US law is a matter of considerable debate.
25.11.2011In Brief: Egyptian election 2011
A brief run-down of the first election in Egypt since the fall of Hosni Mubarak
25.11.2011In Brief: Syrian crisis
A short note on teh deepening Syrian crisis
15.11.2011The Arab Uprisings
Since December 2010, the most profound process of change has affected the countries of the Arab world. The change spread quickly between the countries of the region, underlining the many common factors that provoked unrest. How the region's revolutions progress, however, depends on the individual characteristics of each country, which are very different. This paper looks at these similarities and differences and considers the possible outcomes in each case. The legitimacy of ruling regimes, the effect of societies' divisions along confessional lines and the role of the region's militaries are considered.
11.08.2011Palestinian statehood
Disillusioned with the US-led peace process, Palestinian leaders are seeking a UN resolution in September 2011 in favour of Palestinian statehood. The political implications of such a resolution are likely to be bigger than its legal ones. But despite the momentum gained by the Palestinian proposal, it is possible that external and internal opposition could delay the initiative.
14.07.2011Turkey's 2011 elections and beyond
At Turkey's general elections on 12 June 2011, the governing Justice and Development Party (AK Party) won nearly 50% of the overall vote. This was the first time that a ruling party in Turkey has increased its vote in a third term. In the medium term its biggest challenges will be drafting a new constitution, stabilising the economy, and negotiating changing regional relationships, but in the short term it needs to diffuse a crisis over MPs boycotting parliament.
15.06.2011In brief: Arab uprisings 2011
A very brief survey of developments in the Arab world in 2011
10.06.2011Unrest spreads to Syria
This note looks at the background to the recent unrest in Syria and analyses briefly the threats to the regime and its sources of strength, and the position of western governments towards the regime.
09.06.2011Yemen on the brink of civil war?
President Saleh's departure to Saudi Arabia for treatment for injuries received in a rocket attack leaves a power vacuum in Yemen, with powerful military forces squaring up for a fight over the succession.
24.05.2011Progress in Egypt?
The note looks at the constitutional referendum held in Egypt and on political developments in the country.
17.05.2011Hamas, Fatah and the Middle East Quartet principles
This note briefly considers the Middle East diplomatic Quartet, composed of the US, the UN, the EU and Russia, and its three principles governing engagement: the renunciation of violence, the recognition of the State of Israel and the acceptance of previous diplomatic agreements.
30.03.2011Turmoil in the Middle East
This note looks at the instability in the Middle East and North Africa since the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings.
15.03.2011Uprising in Egypt
Egypt's revolt has been greeted as a historic moment that will have enormous consequences throughout the Arab world. This note provides a simple chronological account of events swince 25 January. It looks a the background to the crisis and profiles groups and individuals involved and considers some likely outcomes of the present crisis.
19.01.2011Iraq at the creation of its new government
On 22 December 2010 Iraq at last announced the formation of a new government, some nine months after inconclusive elections. This note looks at the composition of the government and political and security conditions in the country.
18.01.2011The parliamentary election in Iraq, March 2010
The parliamentary election scheduled for 7 March 2010 is an important milestone in the development of the country's political system. This note looks at the controversies attending the run-up to the election, the provisional results and manoeuvring to form a governing majority.
17.01.2011Qatar 2011
The Coalition Government in the UK has made improvement of relations with the Gulf States, and growth in trade with the region, a priority. This note summarises recent developments in the small but fabulously wealthy state of Qatar.
22.12.2010Global violent jihad
This note looks at British and other assessments of the threat from global violent jihad, Muslim attitudes towards it and the countries that are known to be havens for jihadis and those that are suspected to be at risk.
21.12.2010Middle East Peace Process: historical background and a detailed chronology from 1990 to 2010
This note provides a summary of the historical background to the conflict between the israelis and the Palestinians, and a detailed chronology of the peace process from 1990 to the present.
24.11.2010In brief: Israel and the Palestinians - recent developments
Summary of recent developments in the negotiations between the Israelis and the Palestinians
28.10.2010In Brief: Election in Jordan 2010
The forthcoming election in Jordan will not have a big impact on the country's political scene. Political parties are weak and the monarchy retains most of the power in the country.
13.10.2010Iran's nuclear programme and sanctions
Shortly after taking office, US President Obama gave negotiations with Iran over its nuclear programme one year, promising to push for a new set of United Nations sanctions if there was no progress. After negotiating since the end of 2009, the E3+3 countries, France, Germany and the United Kingdom plus China Russia and the United States reached agreement on the fourth round of sanctions in June 2010 This note looks at Iran's nuclear programme and UN, US and EU sanctions.
04.08.2010The Gaza flotilla attack and its aftermath
Summary of the attack on the flotilla, arguments surrounding its legality, the Israeli investigations into the raid and its political outcome
23.07.2010Yemen
The failed attempt on 25 December to destroy an airliner bound for Detroit has focussed attention on the situation in Yemen. This note summarises political and military developments in the country and looks at Yemeni relations with the UK and the EU.
05.02.2010Where are Turkey's new international relations taking it?
Turkey's path in the international arena is changing, with a growing focus on its regional and eastern neighbours. However, commentators have yet to predict whether this change is deepening Turkey's relationship with the West or moving it away.
27.01.2010Turkey's energy politics
Turkey and its relations with its gas-rich neighbouring countries play a predominant role in the future of European energy security. Turkey hopes to use this as leverage in its aspirations to join the European Union. The array of Eurasian gas pipeline projects
22.12.2009Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Turkey's charismatic Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip ErdoĆ??an, has had some impressive achievements, both domestically and in the international sphere, but has also been a controversial figure particularly for his attitude towards religion and for his sometimes intemperate outbursts. This note looks at ErdoĆ??an's personal and professional profile in an attempt to unmask the new path of Turkey from Kemalist-elitist to 'Non-threatening Muslim'/mass politics.
11.12.2009The Islamic Republic of Iran: An introduction
This paper provides an introduction to the Islamic Republic of Iran; its politics, economy, foreign and defence policies, and nuclear programme. It examines the governmental structure of the theocratic state, analyses the key personalities and forums of decision-making and assesses Iran's policies at home and abroad.
06.07.2009Human rights in Iran: An introduction
This note provides an introduction to the human rights situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It examines the overall political and legal framework in Iran as it relates to human rights and considers the human rights experiences of religious and ethnic minorities - groups like the Baha'is and Jews - and at the human rights situation relating to gender and sexuality.
19.06.2009Syria: An introduction
This note provides an introduction to Syria, its politics, history, and international relations. It gives an overview of Syria's political system and examines the rule of President Bashar al-Assad, who won a second term of office on 29 May 2007. The note also considers Syria's human rights record. In addition, it examines Syria's relationships within the Middle East - with Lebanon, Israel, Iraq and Iran - and with the United States, the European Union, and the United Kingdom. Finally, it provides suggestions for further reading.
04.06.2009Iranian presidential elections 2009
This note provides an overview of the forthcoming presidential elections in Iran. It outlines the main candidates and their platforms, analyses the campaign, assesses the fairness of the elections, and discusses their political and constitutional significance within the context of Iran's broader political system.
03.06.2009Baha'is in Iran
This note provides background information on the detention of seven leaders of the Baha'i faith who have been imprisoned in Iran since March and May 2008. It also considers the international responses to their imprisonment.
23.01.2009Gaza: The conflict between Israel and Hamas
This note examines the conflict between Israel and Hamas of December 2008 to January 2009. It analyses the original six month ceasefire between Israel and Hamas and the reasons for its breakdown. It examines the international responses to the conflict and assesses its humanitarian impact.
13.01.2009Arms Exports to Israel
This note briefly examines the UK's arms export policy with respect to Israel, the value of the military goods that the UK has exported over the last ten years and provides a comparison to the United States which accounts for 94% of all arms exports to Israel, and the other EU Member States.
10.07.2008The UK Government's decision to proscribe the military wing of Hezbollah
30.10.2007The Quds force of the Iranian revolutionary guard
06.07.2007Hamas and the seizure of Gaza
Hamas and the seizure of Gaza. House of Commons Library Research Paper 07/60.
19.01.2007The crisis in Lebanon
The Crisis in Lebanon. House of Commons Library Research Paper 07/08.
08.11.2006Democracy and the Middle East: Egypt, the Palestinian territories and Saudi Arabia
Democracy and the Middle East: Egypt, the Palestinian territories and Saudi Arabia. House of Commons Library Research Paper 06/54.
15.03.2006The Palestinian Parliamentary Election and the rise of Hamas.
The Palestinian Parliamentary Election and the rise of Hamas. House of Commons Library Research Paper 06/17.
29.03.2005The Middle East Peace Process: Prospects after the Palestinian Presidential Elections
The Middle East Peace Process: prospects after the Palestinian Presidential Elections. House of Commons Library Research Paper 05/29.
22.07.2004Iraq:legal issues at the handover
Iraq: legal issues at the handover. House of Commons Library Research Paper 04/59.
19.07.2004Iraq:political and security issues at the handover
Iraq: political and security issues at the handover. House of Commons Library Research Paper 04/58.
02.06.2003Iraq: Law of Occupation
Iraq: law of occupation. House of Commons Library Research Paper 03/51.
13.03.2003Iraq: Developments since UN Security Council Resolution 1441
Iraq: developments since UN Security Council Resolution 1441. House of Commons Library Research Paper 03/22
21.11.2002Iraq and UN Security Council Resolution 1441
Iraq and UN Security Council Resolution 1441. House of Commons Library Research Paper 02/64.
20.09.2002Iraq: the debate on policy options
Iraq: the debate on policy options. House of Commons Library Research Paper 02/53.
24.01.2001The Middle East crisis: Camp David, the Al-Aqsa Intifada and the prospects for the peace process
The Middle East Crisis: Camp David, the 'Al-Aqsa Intifada' and the Prospects for the Peace Process. House of Commons Library Research Paper 01/09.
24.01.2001Development in the Middle East Peace Process 1991-2000
Developments in the Middle East Peace Process 1991-2000. House of Commons Library Research Paper 01/08.
10.02.1999Iraq: Desert Fox and Policy Developments
Iraq: "Desert Fox" and Policy developments. House of Commons Library Research Paper 99/13.
16.02.1998Iraq crisis
The Iraq crisis. House of Commons Library Research Paper 98/28.