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By-elections in the House of Lords

This page sets out notices, lists of candidates and results of recent hereditary peers' by-elections in the House of Lords.

2023 by-elections

Crossbench hereditary peers' by-election

Following the death of Lord Palmer on 10 July and the retirement of Lord Hylton on 27 July, two vacancies were created among the excepted hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords. 

A by-election was held on 19 September to fill the vacant seats. Lord Meston and Lord De Clifford were elected. 

Hereditary peers' by-election

Following the retirement of Viscount Falkland on 21 March 2023, a vacancy was created among the excepted hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords.

A by-election was held on 12 and 13 June 2023 to fill the vacant seat. Earl Russell was elected.

2022 by-elections

By-elections to replace three hereditary peers

Five vacancies were created following four retirements and the death of a hereditary peer in July and August 2022. Three by-elections were held in the week of 17 October to fill the five vacancies.

A single Parliamentary Notice was issued to initiate these three elections on 8 September 2022. A Notice with revised arrangements was issued on 20 September, following the death of her late Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Conservative hereditary peers' by-election

Two vacancies were created following the retirement of Lord Astor of Hever on 22 July 2022 and the death of the Earl of Home on 22 August; both were Conservative hereditary peers.

A by-election was held on 20 October 2022 to fill the vacant seats. The Earl of Effingham and Lord Ashcombe were elected.

Crossbench hereditary peers' by-election

A vacancy was created following the retirement of the Earl of Listowel, a Crossbench hereditary peer, on 21 July 2022.

A by-election was held on 19 October 2022 to fill the vacant seat. Lord Hampton was elected.

Hereditary peers' by-election

Two vacancies were created following the retirements of Viscount Ullswater on 20 July 2022 and Lord Colwyn on 21 July 2022; both were among the 15 hereditary peers elected by the whole House.

A by-election was held on 17 and 18 October 2022 to fill the vacant seats. Lord Roborough and the Earl of Minto were elected.

Conservative hereditary peers' by-election

Two vacancies were created following the retirement of Lord Brabazon of Tara, a Conservative hereditary peer, on 28 April 2022 and the death of Lord Swinfen on 5 June.

A by-election was held on 5 July. Lord Remnant and Lord Wrottesley were elected.

Conservative hereditary peers' by-election

A vacancy was created following the retirement of Lord Rotherwick, a Conservative Hereditary Peer, on 1 February 2022. 

A by-election was held on 29 March to fill the vacant seat. Viscount Camrose was elected.

Conservative hereditary peers' by-election

A vacancy was created following the retirement of Viscount Ridley, a Conservative hereditary peer, on 17 December 2021.

A by-election was held on 8 February 2022 to fill the vacant seat. Lord Strathcarron was elected.

2021 by-elections

Hereditary peers' by-election

Following the death of Viscount Simon, one of the 15 hereditary peers elected by the whole House in 1999 on 15 August 2021, there is a vacancy among the excepted hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords. A by-election was held on 9 and 10 November 2021 to fill the vacant seat. Lord Hacking was elected.

Suspension of by-elections in 2020/21

Hereditary peer by-elections were suspended from 23 March 2020 until summer 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Procedure and Privileges Committee, cognisant of the legal position, which is that the conduct of by-elections is required under the House of Lords Act 1999, decided on 22 April 2021 that the by-elections should start again. Their report on this was published on 26 April, and can be found here. By-elections were subsequently conducted using electronic means.

By-elections to replace Lord Rea and Lord Elton

By-elections to replace six hereditary peers

Hereditary peers' by-election

Following the retirement of Lord Elton on 29 October 2020 a vacancy was created among the excepted hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords.

A by-election was held on 13 and 14 July 2021 to fill the vacant seat. Lord Harlech was elected.

Labour hereditary peers' by-election

Following the death of Lord Rea on 1 June 2020 a vacancy was created among the excepted Labour hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords.
As only one nomination was received Viscount Stansgate was elected unopposed on 9 July 2021.

Hereditary peers' by-election

Following the retirement of the Countess of Mar on 1 May 2020 a vacancy was created among the excepted hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords.

A by-election was held on 15 and 16 June 2021 to fill the vacant seat. Lord Londesborough was elected.

Conservative hereditary peers' by-election

Following the retirement of the Earl of Selborne on 26 March 2020 and the retirement of Lord Denham on 26 April 2021 and the non-attendance of Lord Selsdon during the 2019-21 Parliamentary session three vacancies were created among the excepted Conservative hereditary peers who sit in the House of Lords. The replacements for the Earl of Selborne, Lord Denham and Lord Selsdon were elected in one ballot held on 14 June 2021. Lord Sandhurst, the Earl of Leicester and Lord Altrincham were elected.

2019 by-elections and earlier

Notices relating to 2019 by-elections and earlier are also available to read.

 

Further information

Notices relating to previous by-elections are also available to read.

Lords Enquiry Service

Contact us to find out more about the work, role and membership of the Lords.

By-elections: background

Under the House of Lords Act 1999, the House of Lords elected 90 hereditary peers to sit in the reformed House. When one of these hereditary peers dies, a by-election is held.
All those on the Register of hereditary peers are eligible to stand in by-elections. The by-election must take place within three months of any vacancy occurring.
The system of by-elections came into effect in November 2002.