Malicious actors, both State and non-State, are conducting activity that is detrimental to UK interests and those of our allies, whether directly targeted at us or not. Cyber attacks have grown in intensity, complexity and severity in recent years as these actors are becoming bolder and take more risks for economic, strategic, regional or financial gains. The UK Government has demonstrated that it will defend against, counter and identify those who seek to do us harm. The UK works with its international partners and in multilateral fora to call out those who are responsible for malicious and disruptive cyberattacks. Working closely with foreign agency and industry partners, Government agencies identify and mitigate vulnerabilities and manage and resolve incidents if they occur. The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) and the Centre for the Protection of Critical National Infrastructure (CPNI) routinely assess the threat from a range of actors to our most critical sectors.