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Dissolution of Parliament

The dissolution of Parliament took place on Thursday 30 May 2024. All business in the House of Commons and House of Lords has come to an end. There are currently no MPs and every seat in the Commons is vacant until after the general election on 4 July 2024.

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Brexit: trade

What are the implications of Brexit for the trade relationship between the UK and the EU? How will the UK continue trading with the rest of the world? Read research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on how leaving the EU will affect trade policy.


Brexit: Trade issues for food and agriculture
Commons Library research briefing, updated 5 November 2019
Discusses the impact of future trade policy for consumers, farmers and producers, and provides statistics on international food and drink trade

Brexit and trade in services
Commons Library Insight, 8 October 2019
Looks at how no-deal Brexit might change the way UK service businesses trade with the EU

Brexit: trade tariffs if there is no deal
Commons Library research briefing, updated 30 September 2019
Explains what tariffs are, how they work in the EU, what tariffs have been announced and the role of the Commons in scrutinising them

No deal Brexit: trade
Commons Library research briefing, 12 September 2019
Examines the effect of no-deal Brexit on the UK's trade with both EU and non-EU countries

UK investment policy
International Trade Committee report, 30 July 2019
Recommends the Government put in place a policy on International Investment Agreements in advance of a possible no-deal Brexit

Trade in services and Brexit
Commons Library research briefing, 14 June 2019
Looks at the complexity of international trade in services and discusses what changes could take place under the different future scenarios

EU state aid rules and WTO subsidies agreement
Commons Library research briefing, updated 12 June 2019
Explains the rules on state aid and subsidies, and considers what rules might apply in the UK after Brexit

Tariffs: Theory and Practice
Lords Library research briefing, 27 March 2019
Information on the use of tariffs in international trade and the UK's options after leaving the European Union

Scotland and Brexit: Trade and Foreign Investment
Scottish Affairs Committee report, 11 March 2019
Outlines the need for the devolved administrations to be closely involved in each stage of negotiating UK trade deals

List of EU trade agreements
Commons Library research briefing, updated 28 February 2019
List of EU trade agreements in force and the Government's progress in rolling them over

UK trade policy transparency and scrutiny
International Trade Committee report, 28 December 2018
Sets out the role of Parliament, business, civil society, devolved administrations and local government in post-Brexit trade policy

UK Trade Remedies Authority
International Trade Committee report, 10 May 2018
Questions whether the Government can achieve its ambition of establishing a UK Trade Remedies Authority before leaving the EU

The European Free Trade Association
Commons Library research briefing, 2 February 2018
Overview of EFTA – an intergovernmental group of countries that promotes free trade and economic integration between its members

Future of UK trade and customs policy
Lords Library research briefing, 1 December 2017
Examines future policy on EU trade relations, the single market, customs unions, free trade agreements and trade outside the EU

Brexit and the future of customs
Public Accounts Committee report, 14 November 2017
Warns Government must do more to work with businesses and ensure customs system is in place in time for Brexit

UK trade options beyond 2019
International Trade Committee report, 7 March 2017
Says the Government must act quickly to bolster confidence and put the UK in the best position to forge new trading relationships

Leaving the EU: customs unions
Lords Library research briefing, 27 January 2017
Information on customs unions in light of the UK's decision to leave the EU


Trade Bill
Constitution Committee report, 15 October 2018
Urges the Government to ensure that the promised legal safeguards for delegated powers are included in the Trade Bill

Trade Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Lords Library research briefing, 31 August 2018
Looks at the provisions of the Trade Bill and its passage through the Commons before second reading in the Lords

Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Lords Library research briefing, 31 August 2018
Overview of the purpose of the bill and a summary of its report stage in the House of Commons

The Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill
Commons Library research briefing, updated 6 July 2018
Analyses the "Customs Bill", which is intended to create a functioning customs, VAT and excise regime for the UK after Brexit

The Trade Bill
Commons Library research briefing, updated 2 July 2018
Analyses the Trade Bill, which is intended to allow the UK to continue its existing trade policy immediately after Brexit

Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill
Constitution Committee report, 23 February 2018
Raises concerns about the constitutional implications of the proposed powers of the Bill

The UK's trade relationship with the EU

No-deal Brexit and WTO: Article 24 explained
Commons Library Insight, 4 February 2019
Looks at the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Article XXIV and what it means for any future UK–EU trade relationship

The European Economic Area
Commons Library research briefing, updated 21 December 2018
Outlines the institutional structure of the EEA, its pros and cons and the debate over withdrawal from the EEA

Future trade with the EU: mutual recognition
Commons Library research briefing, 8 October 2018
Examines the different ways in which the term 'mutual recognition' is used in the context of the UK's future relationship with the EU

Brexit: the customs challenge
EU External Affairs Sub-Committee report, 20 September 2018
Says the Facilitated Customs Arrangement raises many questions that need to be resolved for it to be workable and acceptable to the EU

Brexit: customs and regulatory arrangements
Commons Library research briefing, updated 13 July 2018
Considers proposals for leaving the Customs Union and the Single Market while securing a customs arrangement and frictionless trade

Brexit: trade aspects
Commons Library research briefing, 9 October 2017
Looks at possible options for the UK's trading relationships with the EU and non-EU countries after Brexit

Importance of trade with the EU for UK industries
Commons Library research briefing, 1 August 2017
Examines the importance of trade with the EU, particularly for UK industries that are highly integrated into the European Single Market

Brexit and trade
Commons Library Insight, 23 June 2017
Examines the UK's future trade relationship with the EU and what happens if no trade agreement is reached

Leaving the EU: World Trade Organisation
Lords Library research briefing, 28 March 2017
Considers how the UK would trade with the EU under WTO terms, if the UK left the EU without a trade deal

Digital Single Market: E-commerce package
European Scrutiny Committee, 28 March 2017
Report calls on the Government to clarify how UK access to the Digital Single Market will be affected after Brexit

Brexit: trade in non-financial services
EU Internal Market Sub-Committee report, 22 March 2017
Considers the implications of Brexit for trade in non-financial services, calling for trade agreement to protect services sector

Brexit: trade in goods
EU External Affairs Sub-Committee report, 14 March 2017
Considers the potential impact of Brexit on the UK's trade with the EU in six goods sectors

Brexit: options for trade
EU Internal Market and External Affairs Sub-Committee report, 13 December 2016
Evaluates models for future UK–EU trade, concluding Brexit requires compromise between sovereignty and liberalising trade

International trade

UK replacement of the EU's external agreements after Brexit
Commons Library research briefing, updated 19 September 2019
Overview of the EU's existing international trade agreements and the UK Government's plan of adopting these after Brexit

Human Rights and Trade Deals
Lords Library research briefing, 5 September 2019
Overview of ensuring that human rights are protected in the UK's future trade agreements after leaving the EU

UK progress in rolling over EU trade agreements
Commons Library research briefing, updated 22 August 2019
List of EU trade agreements in force and the Government's progress in rolling them over

CETA: the EU-Canada free trade agreement
Commons Library research briefing, updated 7 May 2019
Details the Comprehensive Trade and Economic Agreement (CETA), the free trade agreement between the EU and Canada

Future free trade agreements: US, CPTPP, Australia and New Zealand
Commons Library research briefing, 20 February 2019
Overview of proposed new trade deals after Brexit between the UK and countries that do not currently have agreements with the EU

Trade and the Commonwealth: developing countries
International Trade Committee report, 29 November 2018
Calls on the Government to reconsider how it trades with developing countries after Brexit

Continuing application of EU trade agreements after Brexit
International Trade Committee report, 7 March 2018
Warns that trade with 70 nations risks falling off a cliff edge if the Government does not act quickly to roll over EU trade deals

Current European Union Trade Agreements
Lords Library research briefing, 30 January 2018
Summarises the EU's trading relationships with OECD and BRICS countries, excluding EFTA states

Leaving the EU: global free trade
Lords Library research briefing, 20 October 2016
What are the opportunities for the UK to be an outward-looking champion of global free trade?

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