Brexit: trade

What are the implications of Brexit for the trade relationship between the UK and the EU? How will the UK continue trading with the rest of the world? Read research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on how leaving the EU will affect trade policy.


UK Trade Remedies Authority
International Trade Committee report
Questions whether the Government can achieve its ambition of establishing a UK Trade Remedies Authority before leaving the EU

Scotland and Brexit: trade and foreign investment
Scottish Affairs Committee inquiry
Focuses on Scotland's priorities for future trade relations with both EU and non-EU countries

The European Free Trade Association
Commons Library research briefing
Overview of EFTA – an intergovernmental group of countries that promotes free trade and economic integration between its members

Implications of arrangements for Ireland border for wider trade policy
International Trade Committee inquiry
Considers how suggested solutions for the Irish border interact with the UK's obligations under WTO rules

Future of UK trade and customs policy
Lords Library research briefing
Examines future policy on EU trade relations, the single market, customs unions, free trade agreements and trade outside the EU

Brexit and the future of customs
Public Accounts Committee report
Warns Government must do more to work with businesses and ensure customs system is in place in time for Brexit

UK trade options beyond 2019
International Trade Committee report
Says the Government must act quickly to bolster confidence and put the UK in the best position to forge new trading relationships

Leaving the EU: customs unions
Lords Library research briefing
Information on customs unions in light of the UK's decision to leave the EU

EU state aid rules and WTO subsidies agreement
Commons Library research briefing
Explains the rules on state aid and subsidies, and considers what rules might apply in the UK after Brexit


Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill
Constitution Committee report
Raises concerns about the constitutional implications of the proposed powers of the Bill

The Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill
Commons Library research briefing, updated 6 July 2018
Analyses the "Customs Bill", which is intended to create a functioning customs, VAT and excise regime for the UK after Brexit

The Trade Bill
Commons Library research briefing, updated 2 July 2018
Analyses the Trade Bill, which is intended to allow the UK to continue its existing trade policy immediately after Brexit

The UK's trade relationship with the EU

The European Economic Area
Commons Library research briefing
Outlines the institutional structure of the EEA, its pros and cons and the debate over withdrawal from the EEA

Brexit: customs and regulatory arrangements
Commons Library research briefing, updated 13 July 2018
Considers proposals for leaving the Customs Union and the Single Market while securing a customs arrangement and frictionless trade

A UK–EU customs union?
Commons Library research briefing
Overview of UK–EU trade, the EU customs union and the possibility of establishing an effective customs union between the UK and the EU

Brexit: trade aspects
Commons Library research briefing
Looks at possible options for the UK's trading relationships with the EU and non-EU countries after Brexit

Importance of trade with the EU for UK industries
Commons Library research briefing
Examines the importance of trade with the EU, particularly for UK industries that are highly integrated into the European Single Market

Brexit and trade
Commons Library Insight
Examines the UK's future trade relationship with the EU and what happens if no trade agreement is reached

Statistics on UK–EU trade
Commons Library research briefing, updated 31 July 2018
Provides some basic statistics on the UK's trade with the EU as well as trends between 1999 and 2016

Leaving the EU: World Trade Organisation
Lords Library research briefing
Considers how the UK would trade with the EU under WTO terms, if the UK left the EU without a trade deal

Brexit: trade in non-financial services
EU Internal Market Sub-Committee report
Considers the implications of Brexit for trade in non-financial services, calling for trade agreement to protect services sector

Brexit: trade in goods
EU External Affairs Sub-Committee report
Considers the potential impact of Brexit on the UK's trade with the EU in six goods sectors

Brexit: options for trade
EU External Affairs Sub-Committee report
Evaluates models for future UK–EU trade, concluding Brexit requires compromise between sovereignty and liberalising trade

Digital Single Market: E-commerce package
European Scrutiny Committee
Report calls on the Government to clarify how UK access to the Digital Single Market will be affected after Brexit

Trade with the rest of the world

UK adoption of EU external agreements after Brexit
Commons Library research briefing
Overview of the EU's existing international trade agreements and the UK Government's plan of adopting these after Brexit

Continuing application of EU trade agreements after Brexit
International Trade Committee report
Warns that trade with 70 nations risks falling off a cliff edge if the Government does not act quickly to roll over EU trade deals

Current European Union Trade Agreements
Lords Library research briefing
Summarises the EU's trading relationships with OECD and BRICS countries, excluding EFTA states

CETA: the EU-Canada free trade agreement
Commons Library research briefing, updated 26 June 2018
Details the Comprehensive Trade and Economic Agreement (CETA), the free trade agreement between the EU and Canada

List of EU trade agreements (PDF 54.5 KB)
Commons Library research briefing
List of trade agreements in force between the EU and countries outside the EU

Leaving the EU: global free trade
Lords Library research briefing
What are the opportunities for the UK to be an outward-looking champion of global free trade?

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