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Brexit: social policy, education and employment

How will exiting the European Union affect the UK's social policy, education and employment? Read research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the impact of Brexit.


Health and social care

EU reciprocal healthcare arrangements: Brexit guidance
Commons Library research briefing, 11 October 2019
Overview of some of the guidance that the UK Government has published on reciprocal healthcare after Brexit

Brexit and medicines regulation
Commons Library research briefing, updated 9 April 2019
Overview of UK medicines regulation, the relationship with the EMA and regulatory agencies in EU member states and post-Brexit options

General debate on the effect of leaving the European Union on the UK's health and social care sector
Commons Library research briefing, 15 March 2019
Reading list for the general debate scheduled for 19 March 2019 on the effect of leaving the EU on the UK's health and social care sector

Healthcare (International Arrangements) Bill
Constitution Committee report, 18 February 2019
Raises concerns over the bill's use of broad delegated powers and lack of adequate safeguards

Healthcare (International Arrangements) Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Lords Library research briefing, 31 January 2019
Background to the bill and its provisions, and summary of the bill's stages in the Commons

Healthcare (International Arrangements) Bill 2017–19
Commons Library research briefing, updated 17 January 2019
Analyses the bill intended to allow the UK to maintain reciprocal healthcare arrangements with the EU after Brexit

Leaving the EU: antimicrobial resistance
Lords Library research briefing, 7 August 2018
Examines three areas in which the UK's exit from the EU may affect the addressing of antimicrobial resistance

The impact of Brexit on the pharmaceutical sector
Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee, 17 May 2018
Calls on the Government to secure a deal for the pharmaceutical industry that ensures close regulatory alignment with the EU

Brexit: reciprocal healthcare
EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee report, 28 March 2018
Says the rights of UK citizens to hold an EHIC card for treatment in the EU will cease without an agreement on reciprocal healthcare

Leaving the EU: health and welfare of UK citizens and residents
Lords Library research briefing, 23 March 2018
Looks at EU workers in the NHS and social care, funding for public services and arrangements for reciprocal healthcare provision

Effect on the NHS of the UK leaving the EU
Commons Library research briefing, 21 March 2018
Overview of some areas of healthcare that could potentially be affected by Brexit

Brexit: medicines, medical devices and substances of human origin
Health and Social Care Committee report, 21 March 2018
Urges UK and EU negotiators to prioritise patient safety by securing the closest possible regulatory alignment the next round of Brexit talks

NHS staff from overseas: statistics
Commons Library research briefing, updated 7 February 2018
Provides data on the nationality of NHS staff for doctors, nurses and other categories, and changes since the Brexit vote

One NHS, many nationalities: 2017
Commons Library Insight, 19 October 2017
Looks at statistics of NHS staff from other EU countries and their roles in healthcare

Brexit and health and social care – people and process
Health and Social Care Committee report, 28 April 2017
Examines Brexit and health and social care, looking at negotiation preparations, workforce numbers and reciprocal healthcare

NHS and social care workforce
Lords Library research briefing, 15 July 2016
Explores the implications of leaving the EU on the NHS and social care workforce, particularly with regard to 'safe' staffing levels


International and EU students in higher education in the UK FAQs
Commons Library research briefing, updated 30 September 2019
Answers questions about international and EU students in the UK, sets out statistics in this area and outlines policy issues

Science research funding in universities
Science and Technology Committee (Lords) report, 8 August 2019
Immigration laws should not hinder universities recruiting scientific staff and current EU research funding should be matched post-Brexit

Brexit: the Erasmus and Horizon programmes
EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee report, 12 February 2019
Highlights the impact Brexit will have on UK participation in the EU's international exchange and research and innovation programmes

Foreign Language Skills: Trends and Developments
Lords Library research briefing, 6 November 2018
Explores the subject of foreign language skills in England and the impact of the UK's withdrawal from the EU on the issue

The future of the Erasmus Scheme after 2020
Commons Library research briefing, 20 June 2018
Background information about the Erasmus programme, including relevant press and parliamentary material

The Erasmus Programme
Commons Library research briefing, 20 June 2018
Provides information on the Erasmus programme and discusses the future position of the UK with regard to the scheme post Brexit

Exiting the EU: challenges and opportunities for higher education
Education Committee report, 25 April 2017
Calls for clarity over university staff from the EU and for immigration to better meet the needs of higher education

Impact of exiting the EU on higher education
Commons Library research briefing, 15 December 2016
Provides an overview of issues concerning higher education as a result of Brexit and outlines parliamentary debate in this area

Work and incomes

Withdrawal Agreement Bill: Protection for workers' rights
Commons Library Insight, 22 October 2019
Overview of what Clause 34 and Schedule 4 of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill mean for EU-derived workers' rights after Brexit

How can EU nationals access UK benefits?
Commons Library Insight, 30 August 2019
What are the rules for EU nationals accessing UK benefits, including Universal Credit, and how might they be affected by Brexit?

European Social Fund
Work and Pensions Committee report, 4 April 2018
Argues that any gap in payments between the existing European Social Fund and a new fund would be disastrous

Employment of other EU nationals in the UK
Commons Library research briefing, 3 August 2017
Provides statistics on nationals of other EU countries working in the UK and the types of work they do

Brexit: employment law
Commons Library research briefing, 10 November 2016
Discusses the interaction between UK and EU employment law, the potential impact of Brexit and the Government's position on the issue


Brexit and state pensions
Commons Library research briefing, updated 4 November 2019
Looks at EU law providing for the co-ordination of State Pension entitlement and the possible impact of Brexit

Brexit – implications for private pensions
Commons Library research briefing, updated 10 September 2019
Overview of the implications of Brexit for workplace and personal pensions

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