Brexit: negotiations

How will the UK and the EU negotiate the Brexit deal? Read research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the negotiation process.

Withdrawal agreement

The response from business to the Withdrawal Agreement
BEIS Committee report, 10 December 2018
Businesses say that the Withdrawal Agreement is preferable to the uncertainty of no deal but it would leave them less competitive

The Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 9 December 2018
Argues that the Prime Minister's deal fails to offer sufficient clarity or certainty for the future of the UK

Brexit: the Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration
European Union Committee report, 5 December 2018
Outlines the withdrawal and transition provisions, the 'backstop' on Ireland and Northern Ireland, and the declaration on future relations

The UK's EU Withdrawal Agreement
Commons Library research briefing, updated 7 December 2018
Looks at the withdrawal agreement before it is debated in Parliament and put to the 'meaningful vote' on 11 December

Draft Withdrawal Agreement: 7 sites you should bookmark
Commons Library research briefing, 15 November 2018
Contains links to the draft withdrawal agreement and other documents published by the Government and the European Commission

Brexit: the draft withdrawal agreement
Commons Library research briefing, updated 26 March 2018
Looks at the draft withdrawal agreement published by the European Commission in March 2018

Brexit negotiations

Brexit preparations and negotiations
Lords Library research briefing, 18 July 2018
Overview of preparations and negotiations, and developments after the Government's white paper on the future UK–EU relationship

Brexit: Negotiations Update (March–June 2018)
Commons Library research briefing, updated 20 June 2018
Update on what the UK and EU have said about the negotiations since March 2018 and what is left to be agreed before June 2018

Brexit: 'sufficient progress' to move to phase 2
Commons Library research briefing, 19 December 2017
Looks at progress made in the first phase of negotiations, the joint report agreed by the UK and the EU, and other recent developments

Brexit: the November negotiations
Commons Library research briefing, 24 November 2017
Looks at what happened in the sixth round of talks in each priority area and at other developments linked to Brexit

Brexit: the October negotiations
Commons Library research briefing, 27 October 2017
What happened in round five of the Brexit negotiations – the last scheduled round in phase one?

Brexit: the September negotiations
Commons Library research briefing, 6 October 2017
What happened at the fourth round of Brexit negotiations from 25 to 28 September 2017?

Brexit: the August negotiations
Commons Library research briefing, 6 September 2017
What happened in the third round of Brexit negotiations from 28 to 31 August 2017?

Brexit: the July negotiations
Commons Library research briefing, 2 August 2017
What happened at the second round of Brexit negotiations from 17 to 20 July 2017?

Brexit: the talks begin
Commons Library research briefing, 12 July 2017
Overview of the agenda and timetable of the first phase of Brexit negotiations and the key parties involved

Reaching an agreement

The progress of negotiations (June to September 2018)
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 18 September 2018
Says the Government's urgent priority must be to secure a withdrawal agreement and avoid a 'no deal' Brexit

The progress of negotiations on EU withdrawal (March to May 2018)
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 24 May 2018
Highlights issues yet to be resolved in the negotiations, including customs arrangements, citizens' rights and the Irish border

The progress of negotiations: December 2017 to March 2018
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 4 April 2018
Makes recommendations on the Draft Withdrawal Agreement, a transition period and the future partnership with the EU

Brexit: Council directives for negotiations on transition
Commons Library research briefing, 9 March 2018
Looks at the January 2018 negotiating directives by the Council of Ministers, which set out the EU's position on a transition agreement

Brexit: who has said what about transition?
Commons Library research briefing, 23 February 2018
Outlines what the EU and UK sides have said about the scope of and conditions for a Brexit transition period

Alternatives to a no-deal outcome in negotiations with the EU
Commons Library research briefing, 19 February 2018
Outlines what 'no deal' on the withdrawal agreement would mean and explores the possible alternatives

Transitional arrangement for exiting the European Union
Treasury Committee report, 14 December 2017
Report says an agreement between the UK and the EU27 on 'standstill' transitional arrangements is now urgent

Brexit: deal or no deal
European Union Committee report, 7 December 2017
Outlines the potential impact on the UK of leaving the EU without a deal and examines the feasibility of a transition period

The progress of the UK's negotiations on EU withdrawal
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 1 December 2017
Examines the issues surrounding the Irish border, citizens' rights and the proposed implementation period in the Brexit negotiations

Brexit: red lines and starting principles
Commons Library research briefing, updated 22 June 2017
Summary of the starting points of the UK and the EU institutions at the beginning of the Article 50 process

Brexit negotiations under a minority government
Commons Library Insight, 9 June 2017
Examines the implications of entering Brexit negotiations under a minority government

The Government's negotiating objectives: the White Paper
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 4 April 2017
Says the Government's claim that 'no deal is better than a bad deal' is unsubstantiated without carrying out an economic assessment

Article 50 negotiations: Implications of 'No Deal'
Foreign Affairs Committee report, 12 March 2017
Focuses on the implications of 'no deal' for the UK in terms of a range of different sectors, policy areas and circumstances

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Image copyright

Copyright: European Union, 2017
Source: EC – Audiovisual Service
Photo: Lukasz Kobus