Brexit: How will it work?

What triggering Article 50 means for the UK and its place in the EU, Europe and the world. Read analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the impact of Brexit.


Brexit: Council directives for negotiations on transition
Looks at the January 2018 negotiating directives by the Council of Ministers, which set out the EU's position on a transition agreement

Brexit: 'sufficient progress' to move to phase 2
Looks at progress made in the first phase of negotiations, the joint report agreed by the UK and the EU, and other recent developments

The progress of the UK's negotiations on EU withdrawal
Examines the issues surrounding the Irish border, citizens' rights and the proposed implementation period in the Brexit negotiations

Brexit: the November negotiations
Looks at what happened in the sixth round of talks in each priority area and at other developments linked to Brexit

Brexit: the October negotiations
What happened in round five of the Brexit negotiations – the last scheduled round in phase one?

Brexit: the September negotiations
What happened at the fourth round of Brexit negotiations from 25 to 28 September 2017?

The progress of the UK's negotiations on EU withdrawal
Committee inquiry scrutinising the progress of Brexit negotiations and the position of the UK Government and EU negotiating partners

Brexit: the August negotiations
What happened in the third round of Brexit negotiations from 28 to 31 August 2017?

Brexit: the July negotiations
What happened at the second round of Brexit negotiations from 17 to 20 July 2017?

Brexit: the talks begin
Overview of the agenda and timetable of the first phase of Brexit negotiations and the key parties involved

Reporting to Parliament on the progress of negotiations
Background information on the Government's plans for reporting to Parliament on the progress of Brexit negotiations

Reaching an agreement

Alternatives to a no-deal outcome in negotiations with the EU
Outlines what 'no deal' on the withdrawal agreement would mean and explores the possible alternatives

Brexit: deal or no deal
Report outlines the potential impact on the UK of leaving the EU without a deal and examines the feasibility of a transition period

Brexit: the exit bill (updated 15 December 2017)
Overview of the UK and EU's positions in negotiating the financial contribution that the UK is expected to make after leaving the EU

Brexit: red lines and starting principles (updated 22 June 2017)
Summary of the starting points of the UK and the EU institutions at the beginning of the Article 50 process

The Government's negotiating objectives: the White Paper
Report says Government's claim that 'no deal is better than a bad deal' is unsubstantiated without carrying out an economic assessment

Article 50 negotiations: Implications of 'No Deal'
Report focusing on the implications of 'no deal' for the UK in terms of a range of different sectors, policy areas and circumstances


Exiting the European Union
Report says Government departments must prioritise for Brexit and urges greater transparency on responsibilities, progress and costs

Transitional arrangements for exiting the European Union
Report says an agreement between the UK and the EU27 on 'standstill' transitional arrangements is now urgent

E-petitions relating to a referendum on Brexit deal
Looks at the public petitions calling for a referendum on the Brexit deal negotiated by the UK and the EU

Brexit: an overview
Examines the process of leaving the EU, the initial negotiating positions, and what 'no deal' would mean for the UK

Debate on the Address: Brexit and Foreign Affairs
Looks at what's in store for the Brexit negotiations, finalising the withdrawal agreement, and Bills introduced to replace EU laws

Queen's Speech 2017 Day 4: Exiting the European Union
Overview of the Government approach to Brexit, the negotiating process, financial settlement, Parliamentary vote and the Repeal Bill

Brexit timeline: events leading to the UK's exit from the EU
(updated 18 October 2017)
Timeline of the major events leading up to the EU referendum and subsequent dates of note, looking ahead to expected events

Brexit: how does the Article 50 process work?
Outlines the process of withdrawing from the EU under Article 50 and early developments after the referendum

The process for exiting the EU and negotiating objectives
Report calls for transitional arrangements on trade, no return to tariffs for UK businesses and parliamentary vote on final deal

Brexit: impact across policy areas
Looks at the current situation in a range of policy areas and considers what impact Brexit might have

Legal and constitutional issues

Brexit: some legal, constitutional and financial unknowns
Explores 'unknowns' around the role of Parliament and devolved legislatures, EU institutions, the economic impact and citizens' rights

Legal and constitutional issues and alternatives to EU membership
Considers how the UK will leave the EU, some legal and constitutional issues, and possible alternatives to EU membership

Brexit and the EU Court
Reviews the High Court ruling on prerogative power to trigger Article 50

Role of Parliament

Parliament and the withdrawal agreement: the "meaningful vote"
Explains the relationship between approving and implementing the withdrawal agreement and Parliament's role after the negotiations

Parliament's role in ratifying treaties
Explains when and how the Government must lay most treaties before Parliament before it can ratify them

Brexit & Miller: what next for Parliament?
Examines the Supreme Court ruling on whether primary legislation is required to trigger Article 50

Treaty negotiations: the Government's position
Examples of information the Government gave to Parliament in advance of treaty negotiations

Brexit and Parliament: deal or no deal?
Looks at the Prime Minister's speech about Brexit at Lancaster House which included some clarification about Parliament's role

The Future of UK Diplomacy in Europe
Foreign Affairs Committee calls on Government to secure automatic and institutionalised  UK-EU collaboration that respects the decision-making autonomy of both

Position papers on the UK's future relationship with the EU
Overview of position papers, future partnership papers and technical notes published by the Government on Brexit negotiations

Future UK–EU relationship
Outlines potential options for the UK's future relationship with the EU following the referendum vote

EU agencies and post-Brexit options
Examines the role of EU agencies, issues surrounding two UK-based agencies and options for continued UK participation after Brexit

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: briefing for Lords stages
House of Lords Library briefing prepared for Second Reading of the Bill in the Lords

The EU (Withdrawal) Bill: Summary of Commons Committee Stage
Summarises the main areas of debate, commitments made by the Government and amendments agreed in the committee stage

The European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: exit day
Addresses the domestic legal concept of exit day defined by the EU Withdrawal Bill as well as amendments tabled relating to exit day

EU (Withdrawal) Bill: clauses 9, 8 and 17
Examines delegated powers for ministers to make secondary legislation to prepare for Brexit, set out in clauses 9, 8 and 17

EU (Withdrawal) Bill: scrutiny of secondary legislation (Schedule 7)
Reviews proposals by the Government and the Procedure Committee to scrutinise delegated legislation made under the EU Withdrawal Bill

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: clause 7 "the correcting power"
Looks at delegated power to ensure retained EU law functions effectively after Brexit, set out in clause 7 of the EU Withdrawal Bill

EU (Withdrawal) Bill: Financial provision and fees and charges
Discusses spending and powers to impose charges for new functions, set out in clause 12 and Schedule 4 of the EU Withdrawal Bill

The European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Devolution
Examines the provisions of the EU Withdrawal Bill concerning devolution, including legislative and executive competence

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Report on the Bill's provisions for converting EU law, the implications for devolution settlements and implementing a withdrawal agreement

Withdrawal Bill: Charter, general principles and Francovich damages
Addresses clauses 5(4) and 5(5) of the EU Withdrawal Bill, which specify exceptions to the Bill's retention and conversion of EU law

The European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Retained EU law
Looks at clauses 2, 3 and 4 of the EU Withdrawal Bill, which convert EU law and preserve existing EU-related domestic legislation

The EU (Withdrawal) Bill: Supremacy and the Court of Justice
Addresses clauses 5 and 6 of the EU Withdrawal Bill, which instruct the courts on the status and interpretation of retained EU law

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Report recommends that secondary legislation stemming from the Withdrawal Bill should be subject to full scrutiny of Parliament

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Examines the provisions of the EU Withdrawal Bill and their possible impact

The EU (Withdrawal) Bill: constitutional change and legal continuity
Looks at some of the main elements of the EU Withdrawal Bill, in terms of constitutional change and legal continuity

The 'Great Repeal Bill' and delegated powers
Report argues that the Government should not use delegated powers to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny in the forthcoming 'Great Repeal Bill'

Legislating for Brexit: the Great Repeal Bill (updated 2 May 2017)
Examines the three main elements of the Great Repeal Bill and how it might address the status of EU-derived law after Brexit

European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017

EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill: analysis of Lords' amendments
Analyses the Lords' new clauses on EU/EEA citizens in the UK and on a 'meaningful vote' at the end of the negotiations

EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Provides information on the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill ahead of its second reading

European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill
What does the Bill do, why is it needed and can the Article 50 notice be revoked?

Legislating for Brexit

Legislating for Brexit: EU decisions
Examines the different types of EU decisions and how the EU Withdrawal Bill will deal with them

Legislating for Brexit: EU directives
Considers what will happen to EU directives when the UK leaves the EU and examines the EU directives currently in force in the UK

Legislating for Brexit: Statutory Instruments implementing EU law
Looks at how the majority of EU directives are implemented in the UK and lists EU-related UK Statutory Instruments

Legislating for Brexit: directly applicable EU law
Explains what 'directly applicable' EU law is, how it applies in the UK and estimates how many EU regulations are in force

Legislating for Brexit: EU external agreements
Examines how Brexit might affect EU external agreements and lists bilateral and multilateral agreements

Role of the devolved administrations and implications for the union
Examines the role of devolved administrations in the process of EU withdrawal and opportunities for strengthening the union of the UK

Devolution, exiting the EU and Clause 11 of the EU Withdrawal Bill
Report states that Clause 11 of the EU Withdrawal Bill is seen as constitutionally insensitive in terms of the devolution settlements

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Implications for devolution
Report warns that urgent action is needed to end a devolution stalemate on the repatriation of powers

Brexit and local government
Committee inquiry looking at which powers currently held by the EU could be transferred to town halls after the UK's exit

Implications for the Scottish devolution settlement
Debate pack for Westminster Hall debate on the implications for the Scottish devolution settlement of triggering Article 50

Brexit: devolved legislature business (updated every Monday)
Record of Brexit-related business in the devolved legislatures

Brexit and local government
Examines impact on local authorities regarding devolution deals, EU structural funds, compliance with EU law and financial implications

The implications of Brexit for the Crown Dependencies
Report looks at the Crown Dependencies' priorities for Brexit, the Government's engagement with them and potential issues

Brexit: Gibraltar
Report calls for the UK Government to ensure Gibraltar's interests are protected throughout Brexit negotiations

Brexit debates (updated 19 December 2017)
Provides links to a selection of debates that have referenced Brexit in the title or during a debate since the EU referendum

Brexit: 7 sites you should bookmark
Overview of the top seven sites providing analysis on Brexit and the negotiations

Brexit reading list: negotiations and future relations
(updated 20 December 2017)
Analysis of how to deal with EU legislation, the impact of Brexit on the rest of the EU and the UK's future relations with the EU

Brexit reading list: general coverage (updated 19 December 2017)
Analysis and comment on general Brexit coverage

Publications by Parliament and Devolved Assemblies
(updated 19 February 2017)
Briefings and committee reports published by research services and committees in the UK Parliament and the Devolved Assemblies

Brexit reading list: legal and constitutional issues
(updated 20 December 2017)
Analysis of the EU referendum, legal and constitutional issues, and concerns for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

European Union in 2017: background information
Background information about EU member states, key election dates, European Council meetings and members of the European Council

UK and Brexit: stay up to date

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News from across the House

News from across the House of Commons and House of Lords

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