Leaving the European Union

What does triggering Article 50 mean and how does the UK leave the European Union? Read research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the process of leaving the EU.

Process of leaving the EU

No-deal Brexit

What if there's no Brexit deal?
Commons Library research briefing, updated 12 October 2018
What could happen if the EU and UK negotiators don't agree a withdrawal agreement in time?

Brexit: What would 'no deal' look like?
Commons Library Insight, 10 September 2018
Looks at a few important areas that would be affected if the UK left the EU without a withdrawal agreement

Overview

The "meaningful vote" deferred: What now?
Commons Library Insight, 13 December 2018
Overview of where we are now in terms of the approval process since the Prime Minister delayed the Commons vote on the Brexit deal 

Brexit: Article 50 TEU at the CJEU
Commons Library research briefing, 10 December 2018
Considers the Advocate General's opinion on whether Article 50 can be revoked and what implications the CJEU's judgment has for the UK

E-petition relating to leaving the European Union
Commons Library research briefing, 15 November 2018
Contains information about the petition relating to Brexit along with a summary of issues it raises and links to relevant material

Brexit timeline: events leading to the UK's exit from the EU
Commons Library research briefing, updated 7 November 2018
Timeline of the major events leading up to the EU referendum and subsequent dates of note, looking ahead to expected events

Case for a referendum on the outcome of EU withdrawal negotiations
Lords Library research briefing, 19 October 2018
Outlines arguments for a second referendum, the positions of political parties, and legal requirements and practical considerations

Brexit Unknowns (update)
Commons Library research briefing, 26 September 2018
What do we still not know about the Brexit process or the withdrawal agreement with the EU that is currently being negotiated?

E-petition relating to rescinding Article 50 if the Vote Leave campaign broke electoral laws
Commons Library research briefing, 7 September 2018
Overview of the regulatory framework for referendums and the Article 50 process ahead of a Westminster Hall debate on 10 September 2018

Brexit
Commons Library research briefing, 15 May 2018
Overview of the current situation regarding Brexit negotiations and the EU withdrawal bill ahead of the Opposition Day debate on 16 May 2018

General debate on European Affairs
Commons Library research briefing, 12 March 2018
Overview of leaving the EU, the transition period, negotiating a withdrawal agreement and options if no agreement is made

Exiting the European Union
Public Accounts Committee report, 7 February 2018
Report says Government departments must prioritise for Brexit and urges greater transparency on responsibilities, progress and costs

E-petitions relating to a referendum on Brexit deal
Commons Library research briefing, 6 December 2017
Looks at the public petitions calling for a referendum on the Brexit deal negotiated by the UK and the EU

Brexit: an overview
Commons Library Insight, 23 June 2017
Examines the process of leaving the EU, the initial negotiating positions, and what 'no deal' would mean for the UK

Debate on the Address: Brexit and Foreign Affairs
Commons Library research briefing, 23 June 2017
Looks at what's in store for the Brexit negotiations, finalising the withdrawal agreement, and bills introduced to replace EU laws

Queen's Speech 2017 Day 4: Exiting the European Union
Lords Library research briefing, 19 June 2017
Overview of the Government approach to Brexit, the negotiating process, financial settlement, Parliamentary vote and the Repeal Bill

Brexit: what happens now?
Commons Library Insight, 29 March 2017
What will happen once the Prime Minister formally notifies the European Council of the UK's intention to withdraw from the EU?

Brexit: how does the Article 50 process work?
Commons Library research briefing, 16 January 2017
Outlines the process of withdrawing from the EU under Article 50 and early developments after the referendum

The process for exiting the EU and negotiating objectives
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 14 January 2017
Calls for transitional arrangements on trade, no return to tariffs for UK businesses and parliamentary vote on final deal

Brexit: impact across policy areas
Commons Library research briefing, 26 August 2016
Looks at the current situation in a range of policy areas and considers what impact Brexit might have

Role of Parliament in Brexit process

Adjournment of the House of Lords Debate on the Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration
Lords Library research briefing, 11 December 2018
Summarises recent developments which may influence when the Lords has the opportunity to debate the withdrawal agreement again

Brexit and the "meaningful vote": The Final Countdown?
Commons Library Insight, 30 November 2018
Sets out what is expected to happen in the lead-up to the Commons' "meaningful vote" and what to look out for afterwards

Motions under section 13(1) of the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018
Procedure Committee report, 16 November 2018
Sets out three potential options for the process for the House of Commons to approve any negotiated withdrawal agreement

The 'meaningful vote': A user's guide
Commons Library Insight
Overview of the Parliamentary process in approving a withdrawal agreement and in the case of a 'no deal' scenario

The User's Guide to the Meaningful Vote
Commons Library research briefing, 25 October 2018
Explains what the 'meaningful vote' is and what Parliament's role will be if a deal on EU withdrawal is accepted, rejected or never reached

Sifting "proposed negative instruments" laid under the Withdrawal Act
Secondary Legislation Scrutiny Committee report, 20 July 2018
Sets out how the committee will approach its role as sifting committee for regulations introduced under the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018

Parliamentary scrutiny and approval of the Withdrawal Agreement
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 28 June 2018
Argues that Parliament must be able to express its views and advise the Government in the event of no deal on the withdrawal agreement

E-petition relating to Parliament's vote on the Brexit deal
Commons Library research briefing, updated 8 June 2018
Overview of the debate on Parliament's vote on the Withdrawal Agreement negotiated between the UK and the EU

Brexit: Parliament's role in approving and implementing agreements
Commons Library research briefing, 23 May 2018
Examines Parliament's role in approving the Withdrawal Agreement and implementing the agreements through domestic legislation

Brexit: can Parliament control the outcome of the negotiations?
Commons Library Insight, 1 May 2018
Looks at the implications of the Lords' amendments to the EU Withdrawal Bill for Parliament's role in the Brexit negotiations

Parliament and the withdrawal agreement: the "meaningful vote"
Commons Library Insight, 9 February 2018
Explains the relationship between approving and implementing the withdrawal agreement and Parliament's role after the negotiations

Reporting to Parliament on the progress of negotiations
Lords Library research briefing, 29 August 2017
Background information on the Government's plans for reporting to Parliament on the progress of Brexit negotiations

Parliament's role in ratifying treaties
Commons Library research briefing, 17 February 2017
Explains when and how the Government must lay most treaties before Parliament before it can ratify them

Brexit & Miller: what next for Parliament?
Commons Library Insight, 24 January 2017
Examines the Supreme Court ruling on whether primary legislation is required to trigger Article 50

Treaty negotiations: the Government's position
Commons Library research briefing, 19 January 20017
Examples of information the Government gave to Parliament in advance of treaty negotiations

Brexit and Parliament: deal or no deal?
Commons Library Insight, 17 January 2017
Looks at the Prime Minister's speech about Brexit at Lancaster House which included some clarification about Parliament's role

Brexit: parliamentary scrutiny
European Union Committee report, 20 October 2016
Parliament should be involved in scrutinising the Brexit negotiations as they happen rather than after decisions have been made

Scrutinising Brexit: the role of Parliament
European Union Committee report, 22 July 2016
Argues that all aspects of the Brexit negotiations, including trade negotiations, should be effectively scrutinised by Parliament

Future relationship with the EU

The Political Declaration on the Framework for Future EU–UK Relations
Commons Library research briefing, 30 November 2018
Looks at the political declaration that was agreed by EU leaders on 25 November 2018

The EU27: Internal politics and views on Brexit
Commons Library research briefing, 14 November 2018
Examines the views of the EU member states on Brexit and provides background on their internal politics and trade and economic statistics

Brexit and governance of the UK–EU relationship
Commons Library research briefing, 14 September 2018
How are relations between the UK and the EU governed at the moment and what will happen after Brexit?

The Brexit White Paper on future relations and alternative proposals
Commons Library research briefing, 28 August 2018
Examines proposals for the future relationship in the Government's White Paper and the alternative by the Department for Exiting the EU

The future relationship between the UK and the EU
Commons Library research briefing, 17 July 2018
What will the future relationship between the UK and the EU look like? What could a possible Association Agreement contain?

UK–EU relations after Brexit
European Union Committee report, 8 June 2018
Identifies the high-level benefits that could derive from a new UK–EU relationship and the associated compromises

Brexit: new guidelines on the framework for future EU–UK relations
Commons Library research briefing, 19 April 2018
Looks at how the EU and the UK envisage their relationship after Brexit as the third phase of negotiations begins

The future UK–EU relationship
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 4 April 2018
Sets out keys tests by which any deal agreed by October 2018 must be judged

Position papers on the UK's future relationship with the EU
Lords Library research briefing, 7 September 2017
Overview of position papers, future partnership papers and technical notes published by the Government on Brexit negotiations

EU agencies and post-Brexit options
Commons Library research briefing, 28 April 2017
Examines the role of EU agencies, issues surrounding two UK-based agencies and options for continued UK participation after Brexit

Leaving the European Union: Future UK–EU relationship
Lords Library research briefing, 25 November 2016
Outlines potential options for the UK's future relationship with the EU following the referendum vote

Government and politics

Central government

Publishing Government Legal Advice
Lords Library research briefing, updated 6 December 2018
Discusses demands for the government to publish the legal advice that it has been given in regards to Brexit

Defra's progress towards Brexit
Public Accounts Committee report, 14 November 2018
Warns that Defra faces enormous challenges in the lead-up to EU exit and still does not know which scenario it is preparing for

Public bodies
Commons Library research briefing, 8 August 2018
Overview of public bodies and the powers provided to Ministers to establish new authorities to carry out functions of EU agencies

Exiting the EU: Defra and Department for International Trade
Public Accounts Committee report, 4 May 2018
Says preparations for Brexit are being hampered by uncertainty over UK's future relationship with the EU

Brexit: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Public Accounts Committee report, 25 April 2018
Expresses alarm that the Department has made virtually no attempt to re-order its priorities considering the scale of the Brexit task it faces

Devolved government

Leaving the European Union: Impact on the Good Friday Agreement
Lords Library research briefing, 4 October 2018
Provides background information on the changing context for the Good Friday Agreement represented by Brexit

Devolution and exiting the EU: reconciling differences and building strong relationships
Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Committee report, 31 July 2018
Calls on the Government to set out a clear devolution policy for the Union after Brexit to build strong UK relationships

Intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom
Commons Library research briefing, 24 July 2018
Outlines the UK's existing intergovernmental machinery and analyses the impact of Brexit

Implications for Scotland of leaving the EU
Commons Library research briefing, 29 June 2018
Overview of the key issues at stake for Scotland including the future relationship with the EU and its role in the withdrawal process

Legislative consent and Brexit
Commons Library Insight, 15 April 2018
Explains why the Scottish and Welsh Governments recommended that their legislatures withhold consent to the EUW and Trade Bills

Legislative consent: what, why and how?
Commons Library Insight, 13 April 2018
Overview of what legislative consent is and what happens when it is withheld by the devolved authorities

Legislative Consent and the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Commons Library research briefing, updated 24 May 2018
Overview of attempts to agree changes to the EU Withdrawal Bill to gain legislative consent from Scotland and Wales

Brexit: Devolution and legislative consent
Commons Library research briefing, 29 March 2018
Overview of how the legislative consent convention works in the context of Brexit and devolution

Role of the devolved administrations and implications for the union
Lords Library research briefing, 22 January 2018
Examines the role of devolved administrations in the process of EU withdrawal and opportunities for strengthening the union of the UK

Devolution, exiting the EU and Clause 11 of the EU Withdrawal Bill
Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Committee report, 29 November 2017
Argues that Clause 11 of the EU Withdrawal Bill is seen as constitutionally insensitive in terms of the devolution settlements

European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Implications for devolution
Scottish Affairs Committee report, 19 November 2017
Warns that urgent action is needed to end a devolution stalemate on the repatriation of powers

Brexit: devolution
European Union Committee report, 19 July 2017
Considers the impact of Brexit on the devolution settlements and the fundamental constitutional challenges facing the UK

Implications for the Scottish devolution settlement
Commons Library research briefing, 13 March 2017
Debate pack for Westminster Hall debate on the implications for the Scottish devolution settlement of triggering Article 50

Local government

Leaving the EU: local government consultation after withdrawal
Lords Library research briefing, 23 April 2018
Overview of the formal advisory role that local government currently has in the EU law and policy-making process

Brexit and local government
Housing, Communities and Local Government Committee inquiry
Looks at which powers currently held by the EU could be transferred to town halls after the UK's exit

Brexit and local government
Commons Library research briefing, 20 July 2016
Examines impact on local authorities regarding devolution deals, EU structural funds, compliance with EU law and financial implications

Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories

Brexit and Gibraltar
Commons Library research briefing, 2 May 2017
Considers Gibraltar's constitutional status and some of the possible impacts of Brexit

Leaving the European Union: Status of Gibraltar
Lords Library research briefing, 2 May 2017
Background on the government, economy and society of Gibraltar, its historical status, and recent debates concerning its sovereignty

Brexit: Gibraltar update
Commons Library research briefing, 5 April 2018
Looks at how the Brexit negotiations will deal with Gibraltar's unique status as a UK external territory within the EU

The implications of Brexit for the Crown Dependencies
Justice Committee report, 28 March 2017
Looks at the Crown Dependencies' priorities for Brexit, the Government's engagement with them and potential issues

Brexit: the Crown Dependencies
European Union Committee report, 23 March 2017
Calls on the Government to remember its responsibilities to Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man during Brexit talks

Brexit: Gibraltar
European Union Committee report, 1 March 2017
Calls for the UK Government to ensure Gibraltar's interests are protected throughout Brexit negotiations

Further reading

Publications by Parliament and Devolved Assemblies
Commons Library research briefing, updated 3 December 2018
Briefings and committee reports published by research services and committees in the UK Parliament and the Devolved Assemblies

Brexit glossary
Commons Library research briefing, 20 November 2018
Contains a list of commonly used terms and acronyms that have needed clarification since the UK voted in the EU referendum

Brexit debates 2018
Commons Library research briefing, updated 12 November 2018
Provides links to a selection of debates that have referenced Brexit in the title or during a debate in 2018

Brexit reading list: general coverage
Commons Library research briefing, updated 30 October 2018
Analysis and comment on general Brexit coverage

Brexit reading list: negotiations and future relations
Commons Library research briefing, updated 20 December 2017
Analysis of how to deal with EU legislation, the impact of Brexit on the rest of the EU and the UK's future relations with the EU

Brexit debates: June 2016 – December 2017
Commons Library research briefing, 19 December 2017
Provides links to a selection of debates that have referenced Brexit in the title or during a debate since the EU referendum

Brexit: 7 sites you should bookmark
Commons Library Insight, 6 November 2017
Overview of the top seven sites providing analysis on Brexit and the negotiations

European Union in 2017: background information
Lords Library research briefing, 17 January 2017
Background information about EU member states, key election dates, European Council meetings and members of the European Council

Brexit: devolved legislature business
Commons Library research briefing, updated every Monday
Record of Brexit-related business in the devolved legislatures

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