Brexit: economy, business and trade

How will exiting the European Union affect the UK's economy, business and trade? Read analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the impact of Brexit.


The European Free Trade Association
Overview of EFTA – an intergovernmental group of countries that promotes free trade and economic integration between its members

The Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill
Analyses the "Customs Bill", which is intended to create a functioning customs, VAT and excise regime for the UK after Brexit

The Trade Bill
Analyses the Trade Bill, which is intended to allow the UK to continue its existing trade policy immediately after Brexit

Implications of arrangements for Ireland border for wider trade policy
Committee inquiry considering how suggested solutions for the Irish border interact with the UK's obligations under WTO rules

Future of UK trade and customs policy
Examines future policy on EU trade relations, the single market, customs unions, free trade agreements and trade outside the EU

The Trade Bill
Committee inquiry on the Trade Bill and trade-related aspects of the Taxation (Cross-border Trade) Bill (Customs Bill)

Brexit and the future of customs
Report warns Government must do more to work with businesses and ensure customs system is in place in time for Brexit

UK trade options beyond 2019
Report identifies central issues for the Government to resolve as it prepares to trigger Brexit negotiations

Leaving the EU: customs unions
Information on customs unions in light of the UK's decision to leave the EU

EU state aid rules and WTO subsidies agreement
Explains the rules on state aid and subsidies, and considers what rules might apply in the UK after Brexit

The UK's trade relationship with the EU

Importance of trade with the EU for UK industries
Examines the importance of trade with the EU, particularly for UK industries that are highly integrated into the European Single Market

Brexit: trade aspects
Looks at possible options for the UK's trading relationships with the EU and non-EU countries after Brexit

Brexit and trade
Examines the UK's future trade relationship with the EU and what happens if no trade agreement is reached

Statistics on UK–EU trade (updated 19 December 2017)
Provides some basic statistics on the UK's trade with the EU

Leaving the EU: World Trade Organisation
Considers how the UK would trade with the EU under WTO terms, if the UK left the EU without a trade deal

Brexit: trade in non-financial services
Report on the implications of Brexit for trade in non-financial services, calling for trade agreement to protect services sector

Brexit: options for trade
Report evaluates models for future UK–EU trade, concluding Brexit requires compromise between sovereignty and liberalising trade

Digital Single Market: E-commerce package
Report calls on the Government to clarify how UK access to the Digital Single Market will be affected after Brexit

Trade with the rest of the world

Current European Union Trade Agreements
House of Lords briefing summarising the EU's trading relationships with OECD and BRICS countries, excluding EFTA states.

CETA: the EU-Canada free trade agreement
Details the Comprehensive Trade and Economic Agreement (CETA), the free trade agreement between the EU and Canada

List of EU trade agreements (PDF 54.5 KB)
List of trade agreements in force between the EU and countries outside the EU

Leaving the EU: global free trade
What are the opportunities for the UK to be an outward-looking champion of global free trade?

The European Investment Bank
Looks at the European Investment Bank's membership and operation, and the UK's future relationship with the bank following Brexit

The UK's contribution to the EU budget (updated 4 January 2018)
Discusses UK contributions to the EU budget and how much it receives back as well as potential post-Brexit payments to the EU

Brexit and the EU budget
Report says contributions to the EU budget will be a politically sensitive and important element of the withdrawal negotiations

A guide to the EU budget (updated 4 January 2018)
Explains EU spending, sources of revenue, the UK's rebate and Member States' contributions and receipts

Brexit: UK funding from the EU (updated 10 January 2018)
Looks at funding received by the UK from the EU and considers the implications of Brexit on the EU as a source of funding

Future funding from the European Investment Bank?
Highlights uncertainties about sources of infrastructure investment, particularly from the European Investment Bank

The spending of the Department for Exiting the European Union
Overview of the costs of Brexit, looking at spending by the Department for Exiting the European Union and other departments

Brexit impact: 58 sectors assessed
Provides data on the current contribution 58 sectors make to the UK economy and the number of people they employ

Exiting the EU: sectoral impact assessments
(updated 5 December 2017)
Information prepared for the Opposition Day debate on the sectoral impact assessments of exiting the EU

Productivity in the UK
Provides latest statistics on UK productivity and looks at the impact of Brexit on productivity growth

Single Market, citizens' rights and future economic requirements
Examines the impact of leaving the Single Market on citizens' rights and implications for UK economy, trade and financial services

Economic update: new targets, new forecasts
Review of the Autumn Statement and the first forecasts for the economy and the public finances since the EU referendum

Impact of Brexit on business and industry

Impact on creative industries, tourism and digital single market
Examines the potential impact of changes to the workforce, funding and the regulatory environment

The aerospace industry: statistics and policy
Analysis of statistics on the aerospace industry and overview of Government policy and the impact of Brexit on the industry

The Solvency II Directive and its impact on the UK insurance industry
Explores the Solvency II Directive – an EU-wide insurance regulatory scheme – and looks at the insurance industry in terms of Brexit

Impact on creative industries, tourism and single digital market
Committee inquiry on the impact of Brexit on tourism, the creative industries and businesses that make up the digital economy

Brexit and the implications for UK business
Committee inquiry on the impact on the civil nuclear, automotive, aerospace, processed food and drink, and pharmaceuticals sectors

Leaving the EU: the impact on professional sport
Examines the potential effect of Brexit on the status of professional sportspeople and the possible economic impact on the sports sector

Brexit and financial services
What implications of Brexit are there for the financial services sector, an economic sector which is critical to the UK economy?

Effect of the UK leaving the EU on the rural economy
Information for the debate on the possible impact of EU withdrawal on the rural economy

Leaving the EU: impact on the creative industries
Information on the potential impact of leaving the EU on the creative industries, focusing on the video game industry and the film industry

The effect of leaving the EU on businesses in Wales
Information on the potential impact on business in Wales including growth prospects, EU funding, trade with the EU and EU regulations

Brexit: implications for the housing market and construction industry
How will Brexit affect construction industry confidence, the housing market and potential policy responses?

Potential effect of the UK leaving the EU on UK tourism
Examines the potential effect of leaving the EU on UK tourism with regard to visitor numbers, domestic tourism and exchange rates

Impact of Brexit on consumers

Product safety and recall
Overview of the current product safety regime in the UK, looking at regulation, recall policies and the possible impact of Brexit

Brexit: will consumers be protected?
Report highlights concerns about the Government's approach to consumer protection after Brexit

Effect of UK leaving the EU on consumers and consumer protection
Debate on the impact for consumers of EU withdrawal and the continued application of EU-derived consumer protection law

Impact of Brexit on UK consumer regime
Overview of the main issues regarding the impact of Brexit on the UK's consumer regime under prospective trading models with the EU

The abolition of mobile roaming charges and Brexit
Examines the regulation of roaming charges in the EU and the possible impact of Brexit on UK consumers


HM Government's plans for regulation
Overview of regulation in the UK and the potential impact of Brexit on UK regulatory bodies

UK tax after the EU referendum (updated 7 July 2017)
Looks at the extent to which the UK and the EU are responsible for tax law, and tax after Brexit

Promoting the tourism industry in Northern Ireland through the tax system
Report calls on the Government to investigate if post-Brexit powers over VAT can be used to boost tourism in Northern Ireland

Brexit reading list: economic, business and transport policy issues
(updated 23 January 2018)
Analysis and comment on trade, economic policy, EU budget, business and industry, employment and transport

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