Brexit: defence, security and immigration

How will exiting the European Union affect the UK's defence, security and immigration policies? Read research and analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the impact of Brexit.

Brexit and UK Defence: An Explainer
Commons Library research briefing, 8 October 2019
Examines the legal basis for EU defence, initiatives within the EU since the 2016 referendum and what Brexit means for UK armed forces

What would a no-deal Brexit mean for UK and EU defence cooperation?
Commons Library Insight, 30 September 2019
Brexit will affect how the UK contributes to EU-led military operations. What would a 'no deal' Brexit mean for the UK's Armed Forces?

European defence: where is it heading?
Commons Library research briefing, updated 10 September 2019
Examines possible developments related to the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy post-Brexit

Brexit: contingency planning and powers
Commons Library research briefing, 21 March 2019
How are emergencies defined? How may the Government deploy its emergency powers? And how does this relate to no-deal planning?

The Royal Navy, Brexit and UK fisheries
Commons Library Insight, 5 February 2019
Looks at why the Royal Navy is boosting its fishery patrol fleet ahead of the UK's exit from the European Union

Government's proposals for a future security partnership with the EU
Defence Committee report, 8 June 2018
Calls for further clarity from the Government on how Britain will co-operate with the EU on defence issues during and after Brexit

Brexit: Common Security and Defence Policy missions and operations
EU External Affairs Sub-Committee report, 14 May 2018
Concludes that the UK may be able to participate in CSDP missions and operations post-Brexit but will lose its influence

Ministry of Defence: Acquisition and support of defence equipment
Public Accounts Committee report, 23 March 2018
Urges the Ministry of Defence to do all it can to ensure UK suppliers of defence equipment are not disadvantaged by Brexit

UK armed forces and diplomatic service
Lords Library research briefing, 2 December 2016
Looks at the UK's current defence capabilities and diplomatic service, and future prospects for the UK's global role after Brexit

Home Office preparations for the UK exiting the EU
Home Affairs Committee report, 7 December 2018
Warns that the political declaration agreed by the UK and the EU is lacking in detail on security, customs and border arrangements

UK–EU security cooperation after Brexit: Follow-up report
Home Affairs Committee report, 24 July 2018
Lack of progress and political red lines on the UK and EU sides are standing in the way of a security deal and putting public safety at risk

Brexit: the proposed UK–EU security treaty
EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee report, 11 July 2018
Calls on the Government and EU to make pragmatic compromises on security matters to protect the safety of UK and EU citizens

Proposed UK–EU security treaty
Lords Library research briefing, 23 May 2018
Overview of current UK–EU cooperation on security and justice as well as proposals for future cooperation in this area

UK–EU security cooperation after Brexit
Home Affairs Committee report, 21 March 2018
Warns of serious legal, constitutional and political obstacles in the way of continued close policing and security cooperation after Brexit

Brexit: implications for national security
Commons Library research briefing, 9 April 2017
Examines the possible impact of Brexit on national security and Europe-wide sharing of secret intelligence

Foreign and security policy cooperation
Lords Library research briefing, 13 October 2016
Examines the implications of Brexit for future cooperation with the EU on security, defence, law enforcement and counter-terrorism

Overview

How might Brexit affect UK overseas aid spending?
Commons Library Insight, 10 October 2019
Consider possibilities for UK overseas aid spending in the event of a no-deal Brexit

Delivering Global Britain: FCO Skills
Foreign Affairs Committee report, 28 November 2018
Says the Foreign Office faces 'considerable challenge' to ensure it has the skills required for European diplomacy post Brexit

Brexit: overseas development assistance
Lords Library research briefing, 6 February 2018
House of Lords briefing examining the possible impact of Brexit on overseas aid

The future of UK diplomacy in Europe
Foreign Affairs Committee report, 30 January 2018
Calls on Government to clarify what level of access to EU foreign, security and defence policy decision-making it aims to secure

Leaving the EU: the UK and Ireland
Lords Library research briefing, 13 March 2017
Assesses the implications of Brexit on the UK's relationship with Ireland in regard to peace and security, border controls and trade

Brexit: UK–Irish relations
European Union Committee report, 12 December 2016
Calls on all parties to the forthcoming Brexit negotiations to give official recognition to the special nature of UK–Irish relations

Equipping the Government for Brexit
Foreign Affairs Committee report, 20 July 2016
Recommends that the Government increases funding for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to deal with Brexit

International sanctions

Spending on sanctions policy and implementation
Commons Library research briefing, 5 September 2019
Background on the UK's sanctions policy outside the EU, in advance of the Westminster Hall debate on 10 September

Fragmented and incoherent: the UK's sanctions policy
Foreign Affairs Committee report, 12 June 2019
Report argues that the UK's position on post-Brexit sanctions is unclear, fragmented, incoherent and risks national security

The future of sanctions
Commons Library research briefing, updated 26 September 2018
What effect would the UK's departure from the EU have on sanctions policy in the UK and the EU?

Does the UK have an independent sanctions policy?
Commons Library Insight, 19 September 2018
Examines the existing powers available to the UK and considers how Brexit will change sanctions policy

Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Bill – Committee Stage report
Commons Library research briefing, 27 April 2018
Analyses amendments made during Committee Stage of the Bill, which provides a legal basis to impose sanctions regimes after Brexit

Legislative Scrutiny: The Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Bill
Joint Committee on Human Rights report, 1 March 2018
Report scrutinising the Bill, which provides the legal framework for sanctions and anti-money laundering measures after EU withdrawal

The Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Bill 2017–19
Commons Library research briefing, 15 February 2018
Overview of the Bill, which establishes a national sanctions legal framework and updates the national anti-money laundering regime

Brexit: sanctions policy
EU External Affairs Sub-Committee report, 17 December 2017
Report concludes that the effectiveness of UK sanctions will be undermined unless there is future policy co-operation with the EU

Exiting the EU and sanctions
Commons Library research briefing, 17 December 2017
Examines the implications of Brexit on the legislation governing the imposition of international sanctions

EU voters in England and Wales: Rights, regions and registers
Commons Library Insight, 30 October 2019
Looks at what elections EU citizens in England and Wales can vote in, where they are registered and how Brexit affects their voting rights

EU Settlement Scheme
Commons Library research briefing, updated 19 September 2019
Overview of the EU Settlement Scheme, which allows EU, EEA and Swiss nationals to apply to remain in the UK after Brexit

The progress of the EU Settlement Scheme so far
Commons Library Insight, updated 16 September 2019
Examines the existing data on the number of applications for Settled Status and Pre-Settled Status from EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

No-deal Brexit, free movement and right to work checks
Commons Library Insight, 10 September 2019
Looks at the new guidance published by the Home Office on right to work checks for EU citizens and their family members after Brexit

Post-Brexit EU immigration policy in the event of a no-deal
Commons Library Insight, 10 September 2019
Explains the key points of the Government's latest no-deal policy on EU immigration to the UK after 31 October

EU Settlement Scheme and looked-after children and care leavers
Commons Library research briefing, 2 September 2019
Overview of issues affecting looked-after children and care leavers in relation to the EU settlement scheme

Ending free movement: How will EU citizens prove their right to work in the UK?
Commons Library Insight, 30 August 2019
What are right to work checks, how do they work and what impact might the Government's plan to end freedom of movement have?

Will free movement end from 31 October 2019?
Commons Library Insight, 29 August 2019
What needs to happen before free movement can end in the UK and what does this mean for EU citizens living in the UK before Brexit?

Using British passports in the EU after Brexit
Commons Library Insight, 23 August 2019
Looks at how Brexit will impact the use of British passports in the EU after exit day, and the introduction of new ones

EEA Nationals (Indefinite Leave to Remain) Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Lords Library research briefing, 12 July 2019
Overview of the bill to guarantee EU/EEA nationals indefinite leave to remain in the UK, in advance of its second reading in the Lords

Brexit: Owning a Second Home in the EU27
Commons Library research briefing, 9 July 2019
Overview of the consequences of Brexit for UK nationals who own a property in a EU member state but do not permanently reside there

EU Settlement Scheme
Home Affairs Committee report, 30 May 2019
Raises concerns that the Settlement Scheme leaves EU citizens in an uncertain situation regarding their rights to remain in the UK

Northern Ireland, Citizenship and the Belfast/Good Friday Agreement
Commons Library research briefing, 23 May 2019
Examines the change in definition of 'EEA citizen' for the settled status scheme and how this affects people in Northern Ireland after Brexit

Legislative Scrutiny: Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Bill
Joint Committee on Human Rights report, 26 March 2019
Argues that the Immigration Bill strips EU citizens living in the UK of their rights after Brexit with no guarantees to replace them

Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Bill 2017-19: Progress of the Bill
Commons Library research briefing, 22 March 2019
Summary of the bill's provisions, which would repeal free movement, and overview of its passage through Parliament

EU citizens in the UK and a 'no-deal' Brexit
Commons Library Insight, 29 January 2019
Examines the 'European Temporary Leave to Remain in the UK', which was announced as part of the Government's no-deal Brexit planning

Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Bill
Commons Library research briefing, updated 25 January 2019
Overview of the bill, which aims to repeal retained EU law relating to free movement and bring EEA nationals under UK immigration control

Post-Brexit immigration policy and recruitment of modern foreign language teachers and public service interpreters
Lords Library research briefing, 18 January 2019
Material on the recruitment of EU and other foreign nationals to jobs in teaching foreign languages and public service interpreting

The Immigration Bill: An end to free movement
Commons Library Insight, 15 January 2019
Outlines the bill's provisions on immigration, when they will be implemented and what they mean for EU migrants living in the UK

What does the Withdrawal Agreement say about citizens' rights?
Commons Library Insight, 10 December 2018
What do the Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration on the framework for future relations say about citizens' rights after Brexit?

How has EU migration changed since the referendum?
Commons Library Insight, 29 November 2018
Examines data from the Office of National Statistics and analyses trends in EU migration since the Brexit referendum

The status of EU citizens in the UK after Brexit
Commons Library Insight, 18 October 2018
Looks at the basics of 'permanent residence' and 'settled status' for European Economic Area (EEA) nationals in the UK after Brexit

Policy options for future migration from the European Economic Area
Home Affairs Committee report, 31 July 2018
Criticises the Government's failure to set out detail on post-Brexit migration policy or to build consensus on immigration reform

Brexit: movement of people in the cultural sector
EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee report, 26 July 2018
Calls on the Government to urgently provide more clarity on the free movement of people in the cultural sector after Brexit

The progress of the UK's negotiations: the rights of UK and EU citizens
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 23 July 2018
Calls for urgent clarification from the EU27 on the preparations to regularise the status of UK citizens in each member state

Immigration and Scotland
Scottish Affairs Committee report, 11 July 2018
Highlights the benefits of migration to Scotland and urges the Government to review its target of reducing net migration

Brexit: impact on free movement rights?
Commons Library research briefing, updated 11 July 2017
Looks at the post-Brexit status of EU citizens currently resident in the UK and British citizens in the EU

Brexit and European Citizenship
Commons Library research briefing, 6 July 2018
Overview of the debate and public support for proposals for a form of 'associate' EU citizenship

European Union citizenship
Commons Library research briefing, 6 March 2018
Looks at EU citizenship as defined in the treaties and views on associate citizenship status after the UK leaves the EU

Government's negotiating objectives: rights of UK and EU citizens
Exiting the European Union Committee report, 5 March 2017
Calls for Government to safeguard the rights of EU nationals in the UK and protect rights to healthcare and pensions

Seasonal migrant workers
Commons Library research briefing, 27 February 2018
Background to the debate on seasonal migrant workers and the future prospects of a post-Brexit immigration system

Home Office delivery of Brexit: immigration
Home Affairs Committee report, 14 February 2018
Report warns of serious problems for immigration service delivery and border security due to lack of decisions, planning and resources

Brexit and the labour market
Economic Affairs Committee report, 21 July 2017
Says the Government will struggle to take control of immigration unless major improvements are made to the quality of migration data

Brexit and borders: migration and asylum
Commons Library Insight, 21 July 2017
Examines the impact of Brexit on the immigration status of EU citizens in the UK, and future policy on migration from the EU to the UK

Brexit: UK–EU movement of people
EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee report, 6 March 2017
Urges the Government to offer preferential treatment to EU nationals in future immigration policy

Single Market, citizens' rights and future economic requirements
Lords Library research briefing, 20 January 2017
Examines the impact on the rights of EU citizens living in the UK and considers the UK's future economic requirements

Brexit: acquired rights
EU Justice Sub-Committee report, 14 December 2016
Calls on the Government to safeguard EU citizenship rights in the withdrawal agreement

Children in crisis: unaccompanied migrant children in the EU
EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee report, 26 July 2016
Says unaccompanied migrant children are being systematically let down by the EU, including the UK

Brexit and the UK border: further progress review
Public Accounts Committee report, 12 March 2019
Argues that departments have continued to struggle to prepare for a no-deal scenario and that preparations have also lacked transparency

The Northern Ireland backstop and the border: interim report
Northern Ireland Affairs Committee report, 11 March 2019
Says a technical solution to the Northern Ireland border would be possible if all sides adopt a shared position of trust and goodwill

EU assurances to the UK on Brexit
Commons Library research briefing, updated 16 January 2019
Summary of what the EU has offered the UK by way of 'clarifications' and 'assurances' on the backstop

The backstop explained
Commons Library Insight, 12 December 2018
Looks at what the backstop is, if it's likely to be used, and if the UK can then exit from it

The land border between Northern Ireland and Ireland
Northern Ireland Affairs Committee report, 16 March 2018
Expresses concern over progress in finding a solution to the UK–Ireland land border and the absence of a technical solution

Brexit and the UK border
Public Accounts Committee report, 8 December 2017
Report says UK border could be exposed from first day of Brexit and Government planning is too relient on a transitional period

Home Office delivery of Brexit: customs operations
Home Affairs Committee report, 16 November 2017
Says the Government's lack of contingency planning for post-Brexit customs operations risks major border disruption

Leaving the EU: Frontex and UK border security cooperation
Lords Library research briefing, 25 April 2017
Information on Frontex, the body responsible for coordinating and improving the border security of the Schengen area

Brexit reading list: Global Britain
Commons Library research briefing, updated 3 September 2018
Reading list of material on the concept of a 'Global Britain' in a post-Brexit future

Brexit reading list: defence and security
Commons Library research briefing, updated 16 May 2019
Selection of analysis and comment on defence and security related matters relevant to the forthcoming withdrawal from the EU

EU Committe Report: Brexit: The Proposed UK–EU Security Treaty
Lords Library research briefing, 9 January 2019
Selection of material relevant to the debate on the report from the European Union Committee on the proposed EU security treaty

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