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November 1640-1660

November 1640
The Long Parliament was convened and attacked measures and people associated with Personal Rule

December 1640
The "Root and Branch" Petition calling for the abolition of bishops from the Church of England and its reform "root and branch" was presented to Parliament

The Earl of Strafford was attainted and executed (May), and Acts were passed ensuring continuation of Parliament and declaring non-parliamentary taxation illegal (May-August)

November 1641
The Grand Remonstrance against Charles I's activities passed the Commons, barely, and was not even sent to the Lords, before being rejected by the King

January 1642
Charles I entered the Commons chamber to arrest five Members of the House, but they had already fled

March 1642
The Lords and Commons passed the Militia Ordinance, which did not receive the assent of King, establishing parliamentary control over county militias

August 1642
Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham, formally starting the English Civil War in February

Parliament passed New Model Ordinance, establishing the New Model Army

June 1646
Charles I surrendered, ending the first Civil War

October 1647
The Leveller tract, The Agreement of the People, was published. Its proposals for universal suffrage (for men) and more equal representation were debated at Putney Debates

December 1648
Pride's Purge, when Army leaders excluded MPs thought to be sympathetic to Charles I from Parliament; the remaining MPs were known as the Rump Parliament

January 1649
Charles I was executed. The Commons abolished monarchy and the House of Lords and declared England a Commonwealth

Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament (April), called the Nominated Assembly (July) and by the Instrument of Government was made Lord Protector (December)

May 1657
Cromwell agreed to the Humble Petition and Advice but refused to be made King

September 1658
Oliver Cromwell died, and was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell

April 1659
Richard Cromwell was deposed, and political anarchy ensued

May 1660
Charles II was restored as King by resolution of the Convention


You can access biographies of

Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford
Charles I
Oliver Cromwell
Richard Cromwell
Charles II

from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography for free, online, using your local library card number (includes nine out of ten public libraries in the UK) or from within academic library and other subscribing networks.

Also within Living Heritage