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The Articles, constitution and trade

There were 25 Articles of Union which formed the basis of the two separate Acts of Union passed by the parliaments at Westminster and in Edinburgh.

Those relating to the constitution were:

Article 1: From 1 May 1707 the kingdoms of Scotland and England were to be "united into one kingdom by the name of Great Britain". The flags of St George and St Andrew were to be combined.

Article 2: The succession to the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain was to pass to the Princess Sophia, the Dowager Electress of Hanover, and her heirs. All Catholics, and people marrying Catholics, would be excluded from the succession.

Article 3: The people of Great Britain were to be represented by one parliament, known as the Parliament of Great Britain.

Article 22: Scottish representation at Westminster would be 16 Scottish peers in the Lords, and 45 MPs in the Commons. A separate Act of the Scottish Parliament would determine the election method of election. .

Article 23: Scottish and English peers were to have the same privileges. All peers of Scotland were to be deemed peers of Great Britain.

Article 24: The Great Seals of England and Scotland were to be replaced by a Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The Scottish crown jewels, parliamentary and other official records were to stay in Scotland.

Fixing the date for union

The commissioners' final session took place on 11 July when they fixed 1 May 1707 as the date for the union.

The written Articles of Union with the commissioners' personal seals, were presented to Queen Anne at St James's Palace on 23 July 1706. The ceremony was witnessed by courtiers and foreign ambassadors.

The English copy of the Articles was presented by William Cowper, the Lord Keeper, and the Scottish copy by the Earl of Seafield, the Lord Chancellor of Scotland.


Cowper made a speech from memory which, was reported, as "miserably mangled", before resorting to notes, while Seafield by all reports spoke fluently and without notes.

The Queen expressed her hope that the Articles would "meet with approbation in the parliaments of both kingdoms", and urged the Scots to ratify them quickly.


United Kingdom

The Acts of Union, passed by the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, led to the creation of a united kingdom to be called “Great Britain”.

Ireland was separately named in Britain's formal title - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - after the Anglo-Irish Union of 1801, with Ireland changing to Northern Ireland in 1921.

Great Britain

From 1707 Great Britain was the collective title given to England, Scotland and Wales.


Members of the Scottish and English commissions, the bodies that negotiated the terms of union.


The clauses which make up the Treaty of Union.

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