Start of a new Parliament
After a general election a new Parliament meets and a new parliamentary session begins.
Calling of a new Parliament
Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, the monarch issues a proclamation summoning the new Parliament once the previous Parliament is dissolved.
The date for the first meeting of a new Parliament is given in a royal proclamation when the previous Parliament is dissolved. The royal proclamation is published in both the London and Edinburgh Gazettes.
- The London Gazette 8 November 2019: Proclamations: By the Queen, a proclamation for declaring the calling of a new Parliament
Sitting of the Houses
The House of Commons and the House of Lords sit for a few days before the State Opening of Parliament, the formal start of a parliamentary session. During this time the re-election, or election, of a Speaker of the House of Commons takes place. MPs and Lords take the oath or affirmation.
Role of the Father of the House in the Commons
The MP with the longest continuous service is the Father of the House of Commons. They act as the Chair and preside over the election of the Speaker.
Re-election/election of the Commons Speaker
The election of the Speaker will take place when the House returns. Members of the House of Commons are led to the House of Lords by the Father of the House. There they receive a message from the monarch asking them to elect a Speaker.
If the current Speaker is returned at the election and wishes to stand for re-election, that decision is made immediately.
A ballot will take place for a new Speaker if there is no returning Speaker wishing to stand or the House votes against the current Speaker.
Following the Speaker's election, the Speaker-Elect leads MPs to the House of Lords to hear another message from the monarch. This message confirms the Speaker's appointment.
For more information about the procedure for electing the Speaker of the House of Commons:
- The election of a Speaker: Commons Library briefing paper
- Parliamentary business: Office and role of Speaker
Election of Commons Deputy Speakers
Following a general election and election or re-election of the Commons Speaker, the election of Deputy Speakers will take place.
The Speaker notifies the House of Commons of the arrangements for the election. The election of Deputy Speakers is by secret ballot.
Find out more about the election of Deputy Speakers:
Swearing in and the Parliamentary oath
Members of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords are required to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown before they take their seats in Parliament after a general election.
Any MP or Member of the House of Lords who objects to swearing an oath can make a solemn affirmation instead. This is known as swearing in.
State Opening and the Queen's Speech
State Opening takes place after a general election following the election of the Speaker of the Commons and the swearing-in of Members of both Houses.
The State Opening of Parliament marks the formal start of the parliamentary year. The Queen's Speech sets out the government's proposed policies and legislation for the coming session.
Debating the Queen's Speech
After the State Opening members of both Houses debate the content of the Queen's Speech. They agree an 'Address in Reply to Her Majesty's Gracious Speech'. Each House continues to debate the planned legislative programme for several days, looking at different subject areas.
The House of Commons votes of the Queen's Speech, the House of Lords does not.
- About Parliament: What happens after State Opening
- Commons News: MPs debate the 2019 Queen's Speech
- Lords News: Lords Queen's Speech debates 2019
MPs maiden speeches
It used to be a custom that a new MP did not participate in proceedings in the Commons Chamber before making their maiden speech. After the 2010 General Election MPs were advised that this custom was a matter of choice.
Select committees in a new Parliament
Select committee chairs and members are chosen for the new Parliament.
Commons select committees: election of chairs
On the day after their election, the Speaker communicates the proportion of committee chairs for each political party. This triggers the process for their election.
The House has to approve the allocation of chairs between the parties. A motion is tabled by the leaders of all the parties entitled to seats on committees within a week of the Queen's Speech. Chairs should then be elected two weeks after this.
The majority of select committee chairs are elected by their fellow MPs. This applies to departmental committees and the Environmental Audit, Procedure, Public Administration and Public Accounts committees as well as the Petitions Committee.
- Committee News: MPs vote for select committee chairs: 12 July 2017
- About Parliament: Election of House of Commons Select Committee Chairs
- Select committees: election of chairs and members: Commons Library briefing paper
- Chairs of Commons select committees since 2010: Commons Library briefing paper
Commons select committee membership
The members of a select committee, other than a chair elected by the House, are nominated by a motion before the House. The names are put forward by each political party. The party composition of the committees will reflect that of the new House of Commons.