Roads

All Standard Notes
72 Documents
DateDescription
17.11.2014Roads: Traffic Regulation Orders (TROs)
This note explains what Traffic Regulation Orders are, how they are made and the various uses to which they can be put.
06.10.2014Parking: pavement and on-street
This Note outlines the general legal position on what is generally called 'pavement parking' (parking at the side of the road) and the measures available to the police and local authorities to tackle it.
29.09.2014Roads: vehicle excise duty (VED)
This note outlines the rates of vehicle excise duty (VED) for cars and other vehicles and gives information as to the exemptions from payment and how the Government enforces its collection.
30.06.2014Parking: policy
This note summarises parking policy in England: civil parking enforcement and parking on private land or private roads.
12.06.2014Motor car insurance
This note outlines some of the factors influencing the cost of motor insurance premiums and what government and the industry have done to try and reduce costs.
29.05.2014Taxis: quantity restrictions
This note looks at the issue of quantity restrictions on taxis and proposals for their removal. Taxi regulation is a devolved matter; this note deals only with England and Wales.
29.05.2014Taxis and private hire vehicles
This note covers the licensing arrangements for taxis and private hire vehicles and their drivers and the enforcement of those licences.
17.04.2014Roads: maintenance, repairs and street works
This note describes the framework in which local authorities and the Highways Agency in England and Wales maintain and repair the road network. It also sets out the powers of utility companies and others to undertake street works and the powers available to highway authorities to manage and mitigate those works. It does not deal with winter maintenance, which is covered separately in SN2874.
19.03.2014Roads: HGV road user levy
This note provides information on the implementation of the HGV road user levy, to be introduced in the UK from 1 April 2014.
11.03.2014Roads: 30 mph repeater signs
This note explains the law regarding the use of 30 mph repeater signs in urban areas.
29.01.2014Petrol and diesel prices
Road fuel prices have increased steadily since their recent lows in early 2009. Petrol prices reached a record monthly high in May 2010, set new records in December 2010 and in each of the following five months and broke these again in March and April 2012. Since then petrol prices have been in the 131-139 pence per litre range. Diesel prices exceeded their summer 2008 highs in January 2011 and also set new highs in each of the next four months. New records were set in February, March and April 2012. Prices fell by 10 11 pence per litre over summer 2012 and have been in the 138-145 pence per litre range since then.
29.01.2014Oil Prices
Oil prices peaked at almost $150 Dollars a barrel in July 2008 and fell sharply in the second half of 2008 as the global financial crisis hit. Prices have increased since then, despite a fairly weak global economy. Political unrest across the Middle East and the revolt in Libya contributed to further price rises in early 2011. Subsequent prices in 2011 and 2012 have been volatile; falling amid concerns about the world economy and going up as tension between Iran and the West increases. Prices were less volatile in 2013 but the average was close to the near record levels seen in the previous two years. Some commentators have said that quantitative easing has contributed to the underlying price increases. Sustained high prices in 2011 meant the annual average price was above that seen in 2008 and the highest since 1864. The latest spot price is around $107 per barrel. This is $43 below the peak, but the weaker pound has meant that in early 2012 and early 2013 Sterling prices have approached or exceeded their 2008 peak. The International Energy Agency's business as usual projections put the price of oil at almost $250 per barrel in 2035.
27.01.2014Immigration Bill: Committee Stage Report
The Immigration Bill was introduced in the House of Commons on 10 October 2013 and had its Second Reading on 22 October. It is due to have Report stage and Third Reading on 30 January 2014. This Note discusses the main issues debated in Public Bill Committee.
10.01.2014Taxation of road fuels
This note sets out the way in which road fuels are taxed, and the Government's approach in recent years, before discussing the recent debate about reducing the burden of high oil prices on road users.
16.12.2013Passenger transport: Social indicators page
Transport by cars, vans and taxis constituted 83% of the total distance travelled by passengers in 2012.
16.12.2013Road traffic: Social Indicators page
Trends since 1950 of road traffic in Great Britain. Road traffic in 2012 was at a level similar to 2011, 4% lower than the 2007 peak.
02.12.2013Road fuel prices: Social Indicators page
UK pretrol and diesel price trends and cross EU price comparisons
27.11.2013Driving: drugs
This note sets out the offences for drug driving and the evidential problems associated with their enforcement.
25.10.2013Reported road accident statistics
In 2012, there were 195,723 reported casualties on the roads of Great Britain, including 1,754 fatalities and 23,039 serious casualties. This Note provides a range of data relating to reported road accidents in Great Britain.
24.10.2013Roads: tolls
This note explains the powers of government and the private sector to levy tolls on individual roads. It explains the policies of successive governments to the introduction of tolls and the involvement of the private sector. It also looks at the only toll road in England along the M6 corridor, plans to toll a new road as part of the A14 improvement scheme in Cambridgeshire and at three tolled crossings - at Dartford, across the Humber and the Severn.
30.07.2013Driving: instruction
This note gives a brief overview of the requirements for Approved Driving Instructors (ADIs), explains the significant changes to driving instruction since 2000 and looks at current proposals for further changes.
27.06.2013Road accident casualties: Social Indicators page
A summary of reported road accident casualty statistics. There were 1,754 road deaths in Great Britain in 2012, a decrease of 8% on 2011.
18.06.2013Local transport governance and finance in England, 2010-
This note explains the structures and reform of local transport governance and finance in England following the 2010 General Election.
23.04.2013Parking: disabled drivers
This note is chiefly concerned with the blue badge scheme; it also includes sections on the provision of parking bays and on off-street parking for disabled people.
17.04.2013Roads: speed limits
This note outlines the legislation on speed limits and how local authorities can vary limits in their areas. It also explains the policy of successive governments towards speed limits, including their views on 20 mph zones, motorway speed limits and speeds in rural areas.
15.04.2013Roads: speed cameras
This note outlines the legislative basis for speed cameras, the types of cameras in use and includes information on their funding. It also discusses issues surrounding their efficacy.
11.04.2013Driving: alcohol
This note sets out the offences associated with driving and drinking and the policies of successive governments.
10.04.2013Driving: young and novice drivers
This note explains the driver licensing and testing arrangements for new drivers and provides information on various initiatives - such as post-test restrictions and 'black box' monitoring devices - designed to make these drivers safer and to reduce the cost of driving.
14.03.2013Driving: medical conditions
This Note outlines the rules for driving with a medical condition generally and specifically for those suffering from either diabetes or epilepsy or who have poor eyesight.
06.03.2013Driving: older drivers
This short note describes the driving licence rules for people over the age of 70, including the medical requirements.
24.01.2013Driving: serious offences
This note explains the basic framework for serious road traffic offences, sentencing and charging policy and details of the new offence of causing serious injury by dangerous driving.
05.12.2012Transport: winter maintenance
This note looks at the Quarmby recommendations to improve the resilience of all modes of transport to extreme weather, focusing particularly on the road network. It also explains the duty of highways authorities to ensure that safe passage along the highway is not endangered by snow or ice and looks briefly at issues of salt and grit supplies.
29.11.2012Transport: Motability
This note explains the eligibility for and operation of the Motability scheme for disabled people.
08.11.2012London Olympics 2012: transport
This note gives an overview of the transport planning for the Games and summarises the performance of the London transport network during the Games period.
06.08.2012Parking: wheel clamping
This Note describes the law on wheel clamping on public roads and the legal position of clamping on private land. As this is a devolved issue in Scotland it deals with England and Wales only.
07.06.2012Driving: licences
This note explains the law related to driver licensing, including the changes introduced in the UK by virtue of European Directives. There is a separate section on the new licensing regime for HGV drivers, introduced in 2009.
30.05.2012Sources of social statistics: Transport
This note is intended as a guide to the key sources in transport statistics. It represents a self-help guide, providing a starting point for those interested in obtaining statistics for themselves.
21.05.2012Roads: charging in London
This note provides information on the two road charging schemes that exist in central London: the Low Emissions Zone (LEZ) and the Congestion Charge.
01.03.2012Roads: Workplace Parking Levy (WPL)
This note describes the Workplace Parking Levy (WPL), a policy introduced by the Labour Government that enables local authorities to charge businesses for every employee who parks in the area. It outlines the policy of successive governments and provides information on the only scheme currently in place, in Nottingham.
07.02.2012Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T)
Trans-European Networks (TENs) are infrastructure networks in transport, energy and telecommunications. This note is only concerned with the transport networks (TEN-T). It gives information on the background to the scheme, its financial aspects; the priority projects it supports; and the European Commission's plans for reform.
19.01.2012Focus on road casualties: Social Indicators article
A summary of trends in road casualties and breath tests to 2010.
18.05.2011Driving: UK requirements
This note provides information on the driver and vehicle requirements in the UK for foreign drivers and imported vehicles.
05.05.2011Transport: Wales
This note gives details of the overal legislative position pertaining to transport in Wales and provides a guide to the Assembly Government's transport strategy and areas of focus.
28.03.2011Transport: Scotland
This note gives details of the reserved areas of transport policy in Scotland and provides links to resources on these and devolved transport matters.
21.01.2011Taxation of road fuels: the road fuel escalator (1993-2000)
From 1993 to 2000 Conservative and Labour Governments set taxes on road fuels by means of a 'escalator' - a commitment to raise duty rates by a specified percentage each year. This note is a short history of this policy.
21.01.2011Taxation of road fuels: policy following the 'fuel crisis' (2000-2008)
This note discusses the 'fuel crisis' of summer 2000, and the Labour Government's approach to taxing road fuels in the following years.
08.12.2010Lorry sizes and weights
This note gives details of the current weight limits for goods vehicles in the UK.
01.12.2010Motor vehicles: seat belts and child restraints
This note outlines the legislative requirements to fit and wear seat belts in cars, taxis and heavy goods vehicles (HGVs).
19.11.2010Roads: compensation for homeowners
This note explains the right of homeowners to compensation where they are affected by road works of one type or another.
19.11.2010Roads: traffic noise
This Note outlines the various initiatives of successive government and the European Union to properly monitor and reduce road traffic noise and its associated impacts.
17.11.2010Roads: compensation for loss of business from road works
This note explains the right of businesses to compensation in the event of loss of trade due to road works.
04.11.2010Roads: traffic reduction
This note outlines the targets that successive governments have set to reduce traffic on strategic and local roads.
02.11.2010Roads: highway infrastructure
This Note outlines the road building policies of the current and previous governments and explains how the Coalition Government intends to take forward highway schemes in the future.
28.10.2010Local transport governance and finance in England, 1997-2010
This standard note explains the structures and reform of local transport governance and finance in England during the course of the 1997-2010 Labour Government.
20.10.2010Roads: home zones
This Note describes the introduction of home zones.
18.10.2010Roads: unadopted
This note explains what unadopted roads are and the problems and issues associated with them. It also explains how highways authorities can 'adopt' such roads and make them public highways.
13.10.2010Roads: traffic calming
This note gives information as to the legislative authority for traffic calming measures; the relevant guidance to local authorities on its installation and explains about different types of calming such as road humps, chicanes and so-called 'naked streets'.
11.08.2010Roads: local road charges
This note outlines the policies of successive governments towards local road charging. It gives further information on the two schemes proposed in Manchester and Cambridgeshire in 2007-08 that ultimately failed to proceed.
10.08.2010Transport Innovation Fund (TIF), 2005-2010
This note outlines what the Transport Innovation Fund (TIF) was, from its inception in 2005 to its demise in 2010.
10.08.2010Roads: national road pricing
This note explains the history and theory of road pricing, along with the policies of successive governments.
13.07.2010Parking: enforcement officers
This note explains the different responsibilities of civil enforcement officers, traffic wardens and others for enforcing parking restrictions.
13.07.2010Parking: lorries in residential areas
This note briefly sets out the law regarding the parking of HGVs on the road.
16.06.2010Roads: pedestrian accidents on the pavement
This note describes the duty of the local highway authority to maintain the highway (including, in the definition of that term, pavements) and those defences that an authority can use if a pedestrian is injured on the pavement.
14.04.2010Transport and Works Act 1992
This Note explains why the TWA was introduced and how it works.
08.03.2010Transport: rural areas
This note explains the Government's approach to rural transport.
01.03.2010Eddington Transport Study
This note sets out the conclusions of the 2006 Eddington study into transport and the economy and subsequent responses to it.
21.09.2009Working time directive and road transport
This note explains the rules relating to the applicability, or not, of the Working Time Regulations 1998 in the road transport sector.
24.08.2009Motor vehicles: bull bars
This note outlines the proscriptions on bull bars set out in European legislation.
13.08.2009Drivers' hours
This note outlines the European and domestic drivers' hours rules and how they are enforced. It does not cover working time rules.
31.07.2009Driving: mobile phones
This note outlines the offence of driving while using a mobile phone and the penalties associated with it.
06.05.2009Motor vehicles: registration plates
Updated with details of the changes to permit the display of national symbols on number plates, which came into force in April 2009.
01.10.2008Motor vehicles: daytime running lights
In September 2008 the European Commission confirmed that daytime running lights would be fitted to all new vehicles from 2011.
All Research Papers
32 Documents
DateDescription
04.12.2014Infrastructure Bill [HL]
This is a 'portmanteau' bill, covering a number of separate but related areas.
03.09.2014Social Indicators
This Research Paper summarises a wide range of social statistics. Subjects covered include agriculture, crime, defence, education, elections, environment and energy, health, housing, local government, population and migration, social security and transport.
12.05.2014Deregulation Bill: Committee Stage Report
The Bill proposes a range of measures in line with the Government's aim to reduce regulatory burdens on businesses and public authorities.
30.01.2014Deregulation Bill
The Bill proposes a range of measures in line with the Government's aim to reduce burdens on businesses and public authorities.
17.10.2013Immigration Bill
The Immigration Bill would significantly reduce migrants' rights of appeal; restrict access to services including private rented accommodation, bank accounts and NHS services by reference to immigration status; establish new arrangements for investigating sham marriages and examining persons departing the UK; and make various other changes related to immigration controls.
07.01.2013HGV Road User Levy Bill: Committee Stage Report
This Bill would provide for the introduction of an HGV road user levy from April 2014.
29.10.2012HGV Road User Levy Bill
This Bill would provide for the introduction of an HGV road user levy from April 2014.
19.01.2012Social Indicators
A compendium of the latest social statistics. This edition includes articles: Religion in Great Britain, and Focus on road casualties
22.08.2011London Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (Amendment) Bill: Committee stage report
This is an account of the House of Commons Committee Stage of the London Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (Amendment) Bill and has been prepared for the Report and Third Reading of the Bill, scheduled for 8 September 2011. It supplements Research Paper 11/34, prepared for the Second Reading of the Bill in the Commons on 28 April 2011.
02.03.2011Transport policy in 2011: a new direction?
This paper outlines the changes made to transport policy by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government and looks at some of the long term transport challenges the government is likely to face over the course of this Parliament.
19.03.2010Transport Policy in 2010: a rough guide
This paper gives an overview of transport policy in the UK in 2010. It examines a range of issues related to transport policy, including policy-makers, spending on and sources of funding for transport, the transport policy of the main political parties, and the challenges in formulating transport policy in 2010.
31.07.2008The Road Haulage Industry : costs and taxes
The Road Haulage Industry : costs and taxes. House of Commons Library Research Paper 08/68
21.04.2008Transport in London
Transport in London. House of Commons Library Research Paper 08/36
07.03.2008Planning Bill: Committee Stage Report
(Bill 71 of 2007-08)
06.12.2007Planning Bill
28.02.2007Off-Road Vehicles (Registration) Bill [Bill 21 of 2006-07]
02.03.2006Road Safety Bill (Bill 113 of 2005-06)
Road Safety Bill (Bill 113 of 2005-06). House of Commons Library Research Paper 06/13
04.01.2005Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Bill (Bill 11 of 2004/05)
The Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Bill (Bill 11 of 2004/05). House of Commons Library Research Paper 05/01.
14.12.2004Road Safety Bill (Bill 10 of 2004/05)
Road Safety Bill (Bill 10 of 2004/05). House of Commons Libary Research Paper 04/91.
25.10.2004School Transport Bill (Bill 162 of 2003/04)
School Transport Bill. (Bill 162 of 2003/04). House of Commons Library Research Paper 04/78.
23.12.2003Traffic Management Bill (Bill 13 2003/04)
Traffic Management Bill (Bill 13 2003/04). House of Commons Library Research Paper 03/92.
06.05.2003Social indicators
Social indicators. (Includes article on Higher education applications and topical subject pages on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and London congestion charge). House of Commons Library Research Paper 03/40.
28.03.2003Crime (International Co-operation) Bill (HL) (Bill 78 of 2002/03)
The Crime (International Co-operation) Bill (HL). (Bill 78 of 2002/03). House of Commons Library Research Paper 03/30.
11.05.2001Road fuel prices and taxation
Road fuel prices and taxation. House of Commons Library Research Paper 01/52 (updates 00/69)
07.02.2001Road Transport (Bill 11 of 2000/01)
The Road Transport Bill (Bill 12 of 2000/01). House of Commons Library Research Paper 01/15.
15.12.2000Vehicles (Crime) Bill (Bill 1 2000/01)
The Vehicles (Crime) Bill. (Bill 1 of 2000/01). House of Commons Library Research Paper 00/95.
12.07.2000Road fuel prices and taxation
Road fuel prices and taxation. House of Commons Library Research Paper 00/69.
13.12.1999Transport Bill (Bill 8 1999/2000)
The Transport Bill: Part II: local transport plans and buses (Bill 8 of 1999/2000). House of Commons Library Research Paper 99/103.
13.12.1999Transport Bill (Bill 8 1999/2000)
The Transport Bill: Part III: road charging and workplace parking (Bill 8 of 1999/2000). House of Commons Library Research Paper 99/104.
19.04.1999The road haulage industry: costs and taxes April 1999
The road haulage industry: costs and taxes. House of Commons Library Research Paper 99/42.
10.12.1998Greater London Authority Bill: Transport Aspects (Bill 7 1998/99)
The Greater London Authority Bill: Transport Aspects (Bill 7 of 1998/99). House of Commons Library Research Paper 98/116.
28.01.1998Traffic congestion (including the Road Traffic (United Kingdom Targets) Bill 1997/98)
Traffic congestion (including the Road Traffic Reduction (United Kingdom Targets) Bill) (Bill 11 1997/98). House of Commons Library Research Paper 98/16.
All Select Committee Reports
22 Select Committee Reports
DateDescription
03.05.2011Transport and the economy.
Government response. Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
26.04.2011Keeping the UK moving: the impact on transport of the winter weather in December 2010.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
21.03.2011Drink and drug driving law.
Government response. Department for Transport report [Commons]
01.03.2011The cost of motor insurance.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
01.03.2011Severn crossings toll.
Welsh Affairs Select Committee report [Commons]
15.02.2011Transport and the economy.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
14.12.2010Severn crossings toll.
Welsh Affairs Select Committee report [Commons]
01.12.2010Procurement of the M25 private finance contract.
Public Accounts Committee report [Commons]
24.11.2010Drink and drug driving law.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
26.07.2010The major road network.
Government response. Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
14.07.2010Mobility scooters.
Government response. Department for Transport report [Commons]
24.03.2010The major road network.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
24.03.2010Mobility scooters.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
03.03.2010Vehicle and Operator Services Agency: Enforcement of regulations on commercial vehicles.
Public Accounts Committee report [Commons]
02.02.2010Transport in the south west.
South West Select Committee report [Commons]
14.12.2009Highways Agency: contracting for highways maintenance.
Public Accounts Committee report [Commons]
28.10.2009The enforcement activities of the Vehicle and Operator Services Agency (VOSA).
Government response. Department for Transport; Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
14.10.2009Taxes and charges on road users.
Government response. Department for Transport; Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
15.07.2009Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain.
Public Accounts Committee report [Commons]
15.07.2009The enforcement activities of the Vehicle and Operator Services Agency (VOSA).
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
14.07.2009Taxes and charges on road users.
Transport Select Committee report [Commons]
16.12.2008Vehicle excise duty as an environmental tax.
Government response. Treasury; Environmental Audit Select Committee report [Commons]