Incomes and poverty

All Commons Briefing Papers
38 Documents
14.10.2016Agricultural incomes and subsidies in the UK: Social Indicators page
Agricultural incomes and subsidies in the UK: Social Indicators page.
13.07.2016Sources of Statistics: Constituency Statistics
This introductory guide provides sources of statistics on constituency level statistics.
04.07.2016Income inequality in the UK
This note looks at trends in income inequality in the UK over the last 50 years.
30.06.2016Poverty in the UK: statistics
This note sets out information on the levels and rates of poverty in the UK, including historical trends and forecasts for future years.
22.02.2016Women around the world: International Women's Day 2016
This briefing gives an introduction to International Women's Day, celebrated on the 8th of March. It examines a variety of indicators for women's equality both in the UK and internationally.
18.02.2016Welfare Reform and Work Bill 2015-16: Lords amendments
The Welfare Reform and Work Bill 2015-16 had its Third Reading in the House of Lords on 9 February, and the Commons is due to consider Lords amendments on 23 February.
30.11.2015Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015: a summary
Updated analysis of the Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015.
26.11.2015School funding: Pupil Premium
The introduction and development of the Pupil Premium policy since its introduction in 2011
13.11.2015Pensions and pensioners' incomes: Social Indicators page
A summary of trends in pensioners' incomes.
26.10.2015Welfare Reform and Work Bill 2015-16 Committee Stage Report
This Commons Library Briefing Paper summarises debate and amendments to the Bill during its committee stage in the House of Commons.
09.10.2015Deprivation in English constituencies, 2015
This paper looks at relative levels of deprivation across constituencies in England, including which constituencies have become more deprived or less deprived relative to other areas. An online tool maps the variation in deprivation levels within individual constituencies.
16.07.2015Welfare Reform and Work Bill [Bill 51 of 2015-16]
This House of Commons Briefing Paper provides background to the Welfare Reform and Work Bill's provisions; summarises the key measures; and includes relevant comment. The Bill is scheduled to receive its Second Reading on 20 July 2015.
10.07.2015Summer Budget 2015: A summary
This note presents a summary of the Summer Budget 2015. This note provides an overview of the main Budget measures (see below), along with analysis of the forecasts, changes to the fiscal rules, changes to welfare, the National Living Wage, and public spending.
12.06.2015The Living Wage
The living wage is an hourly rate of pay set annually by reference to the basic cost of living in the UK and London. The current living wage is 7.85 per hour outside London and 9.15 per hour in London.
19.05.2015Key Issues for the 2015 Parliament
This book examines the key issues facing the House of Commons over the course of the 2015 Parliament - from the public finances to the UK's membership of the EU and from school places for children to climate change.
04.07.2014Child Poverty Act 2010: a short guide
The Child Poverty Act 2010, which received Royal Assent on 25 March 2010, fulfilled the Labour Government's commitment made in September 2008 to enshrine in legislation the target of 'eradicating' child poverty by 2020
10.04.2014Food Banks and Food Poverty
The number of food banks in the UK has increased substantially in recent years. This note explains how food banks work, examines their growth and discusses possible contributing factors and policy developments.
04.01.2013Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill
11.10.2012Food Prices and Affordability
Food prices have hit historic peaks in the last few years. This note sets out recent trends internationally, UK policy responses and the follow through to UK prices and spending habits.
26.07.2012Olympic Britain
Olympic Britain tells the story of the profound economic and social change in the UK since the two previous London Olympics, in 1908 and 1948, using statistics and expert analysis. The book can also be browsed using the Parliament website at
29.05.2012Regional house prices: affordability and income ratios
In 2011 the ratio of lower quartile house price to lower quartile earnings in England was 6.5. The highest ratios are found in London (9.0), the South East (8.2) and the South West (7.8).
18.11.2010Savings Account and Health in Pregnancy Grant Bill: Committee Stage Report
The Bill gives effect to decisions made as part of the initial review of public expenditure undertaken soon after the 2010 General Election. This Paper summarises proceedings in the Commons Committee Stage of the Bill. Several amendments proposed but none were successful. The paper complements Research Paper 10/66, which was prepared for the Second Reading of the Bill.
30.04.2010Global Economic Crisis & developing countries
This note was last published on 26 August 2009 and will not be updated. In the early stages of the financial crisis there were hopes that it would be largely contained within developed economies, with developing economies having 'decoupled' from them. These early hopes proved unfounded, with developing countries struck by declining trade, a loss of investor confidence and withdrawal of investment, a fall in the value of vital remittances, and much reduced growth and contraction in some cases. There are also fears that aid flows may suffer in the aftermath of the crisis. This note summarises key reports and statistics, with links to further resources.
24.02.2010Sustainable Communities Act 2007 (Amendment) Bill [Bill 21 of 2009-10]
The Bill seeks to amend the 2007 Act by setting a deadline for the Secretary of State to initiate the next round of proposals for enhancing the sustainability of local communities from local authorities under the Act. It provides for regulations to be made specifying the rules for this process. These are also to cover parish council involvement and the role of local petitioning. There is also provision for greater flexibility in decision-making on proposals.
03.12.2009Child Poverty Bill: Committee Stage Report. Bill 10 2009-10.
The Bill fulfils the Government's commitment made in September 2008 to enshrine the 2020 child poverty target in legislation. It establishes four separate child poverty targets to be met by 2020/21, requires the UK Government to publish a regular UK child poverty strategy, requires the Scottish and Northern Irish Ministers to publish child poverty strategies, establishes a Child Poverty Commission to provide advice, requires the UK Government to publish annual progress reports, and places new duties on local authorities and other 'delivery partners'' in England to work together to tackle child poverty.
30.07.2009UK income inequality (with international comparisons)
Income inequality has generally increased over the past two decades, stablising on one measure, but increasing further on another. This note updates Library Research Paper (RP04/70), Incomes, Wealth & Inequality. It includes the 2007/08 UK data and European/OECD comparisons.
02.07.2009Progress towards the 2010/11 child poverty target, the 2020 target & the Child Poverty Bill
The Government set targets to reduce child poverty by a quarter between 1998/99 and 2004/05, as a step towards halving it by 2010/11 and a goal of 'eradicating' it by 2020. A Bill to enhsrine the 2020 target has been published. A Library research paper on the bil is aviailable at The 2004/05 target was missed (see SN/EP/4759 for details). A new composite measure of three indicators was then adopted, one of which constitutes the national target of halving child poverty by 2010/11.
30.06.2009Child Poverty Bill. Bill 112 of 2008-09
This briefing on the Child Poverty Bill has been prepared for the Second Reading debate on the Bill in the House of Commons.
15.05.2009Poverty: Regional statistics
This note explains why constituency-level poverty data are not available (apart from in Northern Ireland). It gives region/country level data (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and the English regions) for poverty among the whole population, children, working-age adults and pensioners (with times series back to 1994/95 in a supplementary spreadsheet).
23.03.2009Income and earnings by constituency: availability of data
Members of Parliament often express interest in incomes at a local level, and at the Parliamentary constituency level in particular. However, limited income statistics are available for smaller geographies, such as constituencies. This note outlines what is available at the constituency level.
23.02.2009Saving Gateway Accounts Bill : Committee Stage report (Bill 3 of 2008-09)
This short Bill establishes a government subsidised savings scheme for people of working age on low incomes. The Saving Gateway has been trialled in several regions; the Bill establishes a scheme for the whole of the country.
09.01.2009Saving Gateway Accounts Bill (Bill 3 of 2008-09)
This short Bill establishes a government subsidised savings scheme for people of working age on low incomes. The Saving Gateway has been trialled in several regions; the Bill establishes a scheme for the whole of the country.
18.06.2008The 2004/05 child poverty target: What happened?
The Government set itself a target to reduce child poverty by a quarter between 1998/99 and 2004/05. This was an initial step towards halving it by 2010/11 and an ultimate goal of 'eradicating' it by 2020. This archived note outlines how the 2004/05 target was missed, alongside commentary around the target at the time these data were released in March 2006. A new three-part measure of child poverty is being used to judge the 2010/11 target and progress towards it (see SN/EP/3314 for details). Full background and methodology behind the statistics presented here is given in the Poverty: Measures and Targets Library Research Paper (RP04/23).
14.06.2007The Sustainable Communities Bill Committee Stage Report
15.01.2007The Sustainable Communities Bill
15.09.2004Income Wealth and Inequality
Income, wealth and inequality. House of Commons Library Research Paper 04/70.
04.03.2004Poverty:measures and targets
Poverty: measures and targets. House of Commons Library Research Paper 04/23.
03.08.2000Regional Social Exclusion Indicators
Regional Social Exclusion Indicators. House of Commons Library Research Paper 00/71. (Revised version of paper first published 21.07.2000, updated to include latest incomes data).