POSTnotes

POST provides balanced and accessible overviews of research from across the biological, physical and social sciences, and engineering and technology. We place the findings of this research in a policy context for Parliamentary use.

The best known format for these briefings are ‘POSTnotes’: four page summaries of public policy issues based on reviews of the research literature and interviews with stakeholders from across academia, industry, government and the third sector; they are peer reviewed by external experts. POSTnotes are often produced proactively, so that parliamentarians have advance knowledge of key issues before they reach the top of the political agenda.

Directory of POSTnotes

To go direct to a particular POSTnote, use the numbered list below. You can search the titles using Ctrl-F in your browser.

2016

535 - New Drugs for Dementia
534 - Automation and the Workforce
533 - Electronic cigarettes
532 - Integrating Health and Social Care
531 - Managing the UK Plutonium Stockpile
530 - Sugar and Public Health
529 - Adapting Urban Areas to Flooding
528 - Marine Microplastic Pollution
527 - Infant Mortality and Stillbirth in the UK
526 - Addressing Islamic Extremism
525 - Financial Technologies
524 - Education in Youth Custody
523 - Carbon Footprint of Heat Generation
522 - Barriers to Healthy Food
521 - Access to Water and Sanitation
520 - Digital Forensics and Crime
519 - Electronic Health Records
518 - Psychological Health of Military Personnel
517 - Intellectual Property and Plants
516 - Trends in the Environment

2015

515 - Policing Domestic Abuse
514 - UK Commercial Space Activities
513 - The Future of Natural Gas
512 - Unintentional Bias in Court
511 - Automation in Military Operations
510 - Trends in ICT
509 - Forensic Language Analysis
508 - Deep-Sea Mining
507 - Trends in Crime and Criminal Justice
506 - Trends in Compulsory Education
505 - Precision Farming
504 - The 100,000 Genome Project
503 - Trends in Energy
502 - Securing UK Soil Health
501 - Herbicide Resistance
500 - Towards 2020 and Beyond
499 - Novel Food Production
498 - Trends in Political Participation
497 - Regulation of Synthetic Biology
496 - Trends in Transport
495 - Obesity Treatments
494 - UK Broadband Infrastructure
493 - Sugar and Health
492 - Energy Storage
491 - Measuring Living Standards
490 - Biodiversity Auditing
489 - Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States
488 - The Darknet and Online Anonymity
487 - Value Based Assessment of Drugs
486 - Emissions from Crops
485 - Parity of Esteem for Mental Health

2014

484 - Catchment-Wide Flood Management
483 - GM Insects and Disease Control
482 - GM Crops and Regulation
481 - Palliative and End of Life Care
480 - Short Lived Climate Pollutants
479 - Civilian Drones
478 - Diffuse Pollution of Water by Agriculture
477 - Phosphate Resources
476 - Environmental Citizen Science
475 - Alternative Currencies
474 - Big Data and Public Health
473 - Biobanks
472 - Big and Open Data in Transport
471 - Smart Metering of Energy and Water
470 - Big Data, Crime and Security
469 - Big Data and Business
468 - Big Data Overview
467 - Childhood Allergies
466 - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation
465 - Ancient Woodland
464 - Intermittent Electricity Generation
463 - HIV Prevention in the UK
462 - Surveillance of Infectious Disease
461 - Transparency of Clinical Trial Data
460 - Social Media and Big Data
459 - Stroke
458 - Ambient Air Quality
457 - New Nuclear Power Technologies
456 - Telehealth and Telecare
455 - Electronic Cigarettes
454 - Risks from Climate Feedbacks
453 - Livestock Emissions
452 - Electricity Demand-Side Response

2013

451 - Epigenetics and Health
450 - Special Educational Needs
449 - Khat
448 - Urban Green Infrastructure
447 - Negative Emissions Technologies
446 - Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment
445 - Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis
444 - Cosmetic Procedures
443 - Autonomous Road Vehicles
442 - Reversing Insect Pollinator Decline
441 - Organ Donation and Transplants
440 - Drug-driving
439 - Invasive Alien Plant Species
438 - Uncertainty in Population Projections
437 - Selection of Marine Conservation Zones
436 - Monitoring Internet Communications
435 - Environmental Impact of Tidal Barrages
434 - Managing Online Identity
433 - Livestock Vaccines
432 - Accessing Public Transport
431 - Preventing Mitochondrial Disease
430 - STEM Education for 14-19 year olds
429 - Biodiversity & Planning Decisions
428 - Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions
427 - Biodiversity in UK Overseas Territories
426 - Residential Heat Pumps
425 - Maximising the Value of Recycled Materials

2012

424 - Plant-made Pharmaceuticals
423 - Machine to Machine Communication
422 - Mental Health and the Workplace
421 - Measuring Wellbeing
420 - Advanced Manufacturing
419 - Water Resource Resilience
418 - Balancing Nature and Agriculture
417 - Energy Use Behaviour Change
416 - Drug-resistant Tuberculosis
415 - Preventing Diabetes
414 - Open Source and Open Standards
413 - Assessing Capacity for Work
412 - GM in Agricultural Development
411 - ICT for Disabled People
410 - Bioenergy
409 - Assessing Energy Efficiency
408 - Seeking Sustainability
407 - Consumer Genetic Testing
406 - Personalised Cancer Treatments
405 - Impacts of Video Games
404 - Livestock Super Farms
403 - Low Carbon Technologies in Energy-Intensive Industries
402 - Resilience to Natural Hazards in Developing Nations
401 - Biotechnology Patents
400 - Climate Variability and Weather
399 - Measuring Energy Security
398 - Solar Photovoltaics
397 - Open Access to Scientific Information

2011

396 - Natural Flood Management
395 - Explosive Injuries
394 - Invasive Tree Pests and Diseases
393 - Improving Livestock
392 - Livestock Disease
391 - An Ageing Workforce
390 - Clinical Trials
389 - Cyber Security in the UK
388 - Marine Planning
387 - Anaerobic Digestion
386 - GM Crops and Food Security
385 - Water in Production and Products
384 - Biofuels from Algae
383 - Carbon Footprint of Electricity Generation
382 - Informal STEM Education
381 - Mental Capacity and Healthcare
380 - Landscapes of the Future
379 - Evidence Based Conservation
378 - Ecosystem Service Valuation
377 - The Ecosystem Approach
376 - Natural Capital Accounting
375 - Detecting Deception
374 - Unconventional Gas
373 - Water Adaptation in Africa
372 - Future Electricity Networks
371 - Housing and Health
370 - Environmental Limits
369 - Biodiversity Offsetting
368 - Rare Earth Metals

2010

367 - Biofortification
366 - UK Indoor Air Quality
365 - Electric Vehicles
364 - Drug Pricing
363 - Sea Level Rise
362 - Resilience of UK Infrastructure
361 - Space Weather
360 - Genetically Modified Insects
359 - EU Science & Technology Funding
358 - Biochar
357 - EU Fisheries Management
356 - Addictive Behaviours
355 - Space Debris
354 - Global Carbon Trading
353 - Renewable Heating
352 - Counterfeit Medicines
351 - Lighting Technology
350 - Pets, Families and Interagency Working
349 - Diagnosing Dementia
348 - Insect Pollination
347 - Climate Change: Engagement and Behaviour

2009

346 - Technology for the Olympics
345 - Teaching Children to Read
344 - Deforestation
343 - Ocean acidification
342 - Coastal management
341 - Biodiversity and Climate Change
340 - The Dual-use Dilemma
339 - Nutritional Standards in UK Schools
338 - Environmental Noise
337 - Treatments for Heroin and Cocaine Dependency
336 - Crop Protection
335 - CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage
334 - Arctic Changes
333 - Regenerative Medicine
332 - Futures and Foresight
331 - H1N1 'Swine flu' vaccine
330 - Diet and Cancer
329 - Personalised Medicine
328 - Delaying Gratification
327 - Geo-engineering Research
326 - Food Hygiene Standards
325 - Wild Deer
324 - Marine Renewables
323 - Lessons from History
322 - Intelligent Transport Systems
321 - eDemocracy

2008

320 - River Basin Management Plans
319 - ICT and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
318 - The Transition to a Low Carbon Economy
317 - Future Nuclear Technologies Updated by POSTnote 457
316 - Cervical Cancer
315 - Renewable Energy in a Changing Climate
314 - UK Vaccine Capacity
313 - Large Scientific Facilities
312 - Biodiversity Indicators
311 - New Anti-infectives
310 - Marine Conservation Zones
309 - International Migration of Scientists and Engineers
308 - Alternatives to Custodial Sentencing
307 - Wildlife Diseases
306 - Electricity Storage
305 - Next Generation Broadband Access
304 - Research Ethics In Developing Countries
303 - Invasive Non-native Species
302 - Autism
301 - Smart Metering of Electricity and Gas Updated by 471
300 - Ecological Networks
299 - Smart Materials and Systems
298 - Synthetic Biology

2007

297 - HIV in the UK
296 - Next Generation Telecoms Networks
295 - Climate Change Science
294 - Public Opinions on Electricity Options
293 - Transport Biofuels
292 - Radio Spectrum Management
291 - Electronic Waste
290 - Voluntary Carbon Offsets
289 - Urban Flooding
288 - New Industries in the Deep Sea
287 - Eating Disorders
286 - Grids and e-science
285 - Better Brains
284 - Tackling Malaria in Developing Countries
283 - Health Behaviour
282 - Energy and Sewage
281 - Ecosystem Services
280 - Electricity in the UK
279 - Internet Governance
278 - Alzheimer's and Dementia
277 - Strategic Science
276 - Ethnicity and Health
275 - UK Trees and Forests

2006

274 - Food Security in Developing Countries
273 - Military Uses of Space
272 - Ambient Air Quality Updated by POSTnote 458
271 - Computer Crime
270 - Data Encryption
269 - Adapting to Climate Change in Developing Countries
268 - Carbon Footprint of Electricity Generation
267 - Adapting to Climate Change in the UK
266 - Children's Medicines
265 - UK Soil Degradation
264 - Analogue to Digital TV Switchover
263 - Pervasive Computing
262 - UK Civil Space Activities
261 - ICT in Developing Countires
260 - Debating Science
259 - Balancing Water Supply and the Environment
258 - The National DNA Database
257 - Healthy Life Expectancy
256 - Arhus Convention
255 - Low Carbon Private Vehicles

2005

254 - Farmland Wildlife
253 - Cleaner Coal
252 - Recycling Household Waste
251 - Sustaining Fisheries
250 - The 24-hour Society
249 - Household Energy Efficiency
248 - Science in Court
247 - Infection Control in Healthcare Settings
246 - Changing Role of Pharmacies
245 - Rapid Climate Change
244 - Binge Drinking and Public Health
243 - Ethical Scrutiny of Research
242 - Open Source Software
241 - Fighting Diseases of Developing Countries
240 - Gene Therapy
239 - Early Warnings for Natural Disasters
238 - Carbon Capture and Storage
237 - Managing the UK Plutonium Stockpile
236 - The Bushmeat Trade
235 - Data Protection and Medical Research

2004

234 - Marine Nature Conservation
233 - Digital Television
232 - UK Health Impacts of Climate Change
231 - Organ Transplants
230 - The Future of UK Gas Supplies
229 - EU Chemicals Policy
228 - Drug Tests
227 - NHS Genetic Testing
226 - Dyslexia and Dyscalculia
225 - Radio Frequency Identification
224 - The European Research Area
223 - Strategic Environmental Assessment
222 - Assessing the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Nuclear Facilities
221 - Regulating Stem Cell Therapies
220 - Handling Uncertainty in Scientific Advice
219 - Vaccines and Public Health
218 - Speed Cameras
217 - Teenage Sexual Health
216 - Scientific Capacity in Developing Countries
215 - Openness and Animal Procedures
214 - New NHS IT
213 - Climate Change and Business
212 - Environmental Policy and Innovation
211 - GM Crops in the UK

2003

210 - HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries
209 - Modern Methods of House Building
208 - The Nuclear Energy Option in the UK
207 - The Environmental Costs of Aviation
206 - Smoking in Public Places
205 - Childhood Obesity
204 - Reform of Mental Health Legislation
203 - Security of Electricity Supplies
202 - Primary Science
201 - Chewing Gum Litter
200 - Government IT Projects
199 - Improving Children's Diet
198 - Sex Selection
197 - Aircraft Noise
196 - Science in Policy
195 - Aviation and the Environment
194 - Medical Self-test Kits
193 - Food Poisoning
192 - Nuclear Fusion

2002

191 - Access to Energy in Developing Countries
190 - Access to Sanitation in Developing Countries
189 - Public Dialogue in Science and Technology
188 - Air Quality in the UK
187 - Intelligent Transport
186 - Prospects for a Hydrogen Economy
185 - Copyright and the Internet
184 - Caesarean Sections
183 - Electronic Privacy
182 - Peer Review
181 - Broadband Internet Access
180 - The UK Biobank
179 - Nuclear Terrorism
178 - Access to Water in Developing Countries
177 - Floodforum.net: an Online Discussion
176 - Ratifying Kyoto
175 - CCTV
174 - Stem Cell Research
173 - Appraising Major Infrastructure Projects
172 - Labelling GM Foods
171 - vCJD in the Future

2001

170 - e is for Everything? Public Policy and Converging Digital Communications
169 - Managing Flooding
168 - MS Treatments and NICE
167 - Chemical Weapons
166 - Bio-terrorism
165 - Biometrics and Security
164 - Renewable Energy
163 - UK Electricity Networks
162 - Health Benefits of Physical Activity
161 - Climate Change Policy Update
160 - Access to Medicines in the Developing World
159 - Regulating Internet Content
158 - Reducing Radon Risks in the Home
157 - GM Animals
156 - Managing Human Error
155 - Online Voting
154 - Depleted Uranium
153 - Open Channels: Public Dialogue in Science and Technology

2000

152 - Indoor Allergens and Asthma
151 - The Autumn 2000 Rains and Floods
150 - Galileo: a European Satellite Navigation System
149 - Incineration of Household Waste
148 - National Missile Defence in the US
147 - Implementing the Kyoto Climate Change Agreement
146 - GM Farm Trials
145 - Patents and Gene Sequences
144 - Biodiversity and Conservation
143 - Science Centres
142 - Human Genome Research
141 - Stem Cell Research
140 - Early Years Learning
139 - Genetic Testing
138 - Science in the Media: Press Coverage of GM Food
137 - Mixed Oxide Nuclear Fuel
136 - Cleaning Up: Stimulating Innovation in Environmental Technology
135 - Water Efficiency in the Home
134 - Technologies for Independence in Later Life
133 - Women in Science, Engineering and Technology

1999

132 - A New UK Synchrotron
131 - Health Concerns and the MMR Vaccine
130 - The Sun and Space Weather
129 - GM Threshold for Non-GM Foods
128 - Marine Science and Technology
127 - Hormones in Beef
126 - Near Earth Objects
125 - Non-food Crops
124 - Cystic Fibrosis
123 - Meningitis

1998

122 - Organophosphates
121 - Living in the Greenhouse
120 - Nuclear Fusion Update
119 - Health Claims and Foods
118 - Anti-HIV Drugs
117 - A Brown and Pleasant Land
116 - A Clean Licence? Graduated Vehicle Excise Duty
115 - Genetically Modified Foods
114 - Internet Commerce: Threats and Opportunities
113 - Cannabis Update
112 - Electronic Road Charging
111 - Chemical and Biological Weapons
110 - Electronic Government
109 - Health Risks and Mobile Phones
108 - Hormone Mimicking Chemicals

1997

107 - Gulf War Illnesses
106 - Radioactive Waste
105 - Vitamin B6
104 - Safer Eating
103 - BSE and CJD Update
102 - Ozone Layer Depletion and Health
101 - Bacterial Food Poisoning
100 - Global Warming: Meeting New Targets
99 - Striking a Balance - the Future of Research Dual Support in Higher Education
98 - The Millennium Threat - an Update
97 - Science Shaping the Future? Technology Foresight and its Impacts
96 - Getting Opinion Polls 'Right'
95 - Ecstasy: Recent Science
94 - Fetal Awareness
93 - Fraud and Computer Data Matching
92 - Treating Problem Behaviour in Young Children
91 - Sustainable Development - Theory and Practice
90 - Tunnel Vision - the Future Role of Tunnels in Transport Infrastructure

1996

89 - Computer Systems and the Millennium
88 - Teaching Science and Maths
87 - Psychological Evaluation and Gun Control
86 - Making it in Miniature - Nanotechnology, UK Science and its Applications
85 - BSE: The Cull Policy and the Disease
84 - Orimulsion and Power Stations
83 - The European Union and Research
82 - Fine Particles and their Effects on Health
81 - Safety in Numbers? Risk Assessment in Environment Protection
80 - Impacts on Earth from Space
79 - Common Illegal Drugs and their Effects
78 - BSE CJD - Science, Uncertainty and Risk
77 - Counterfeit Banknotes
76 - Patents, Research and Technology - Compatibilities and Conflicts
75 - The Sea Empress Oil Spill
74 - Research Institutes and Prior Options
73 - Looking Down on Earth - the Future of Earth Observation from Space
72 - Ballistic Missile Defence

1995

71 - Dealing with Drought
70 - Transport - Some Issues in Sustainability
69 - Public Attitudes to Science in the UK
68 - Minimal Access Surgery and its Implications
67 - Managing Corporate Change
66 - Vaccines and their Future Role in Public Health
65 - Oil Rig Disposal
64 - Mobile Telephone Crime
63 - Working at a Distance - UK Teleworking and its Implications
62 - Information Superhighways - the UK National Information Infrastructure
61 - Global Warming - the State of the Science
60 - Waste-derived Fuels and Cement Kilns
59 - Psychometric Testing in the Workplace
58 - Waste Recycling
57 - Encouraging Industrial R & D
56 - Plant Biotechnology - a Consensus

1994

55 - Regulating Biotechnology
54 - Personal Identification Technologies
53 - Public Sector Research Establishments
52 - World Population Growth
51 - Nuclear Safety in the former Soviet Union
50 - Research and the NHS Reforms
49 - Observing Planet Earth
48 - Reproductive Technologies

1993

47 - Acid Rain Agreements
46 - Heterosexual AIDS
45 - Chernobyl Fallout
44 - Screen Violence
43 - Roads Pricing
42 - Carbon Dioxide Targets
41 - Biofuels for Transport
40 - Nuclear Fusion
39 - Oil Spill Clean-up

1992

38 - Clean Coal Technology
37 - Patenting Human DNA
36 - Diet and Heart Disease
35 - Disposal of the CIS Nuclear Weapons
34 - Telephone Numbering
33 - Global Warming
32 - Renewable Energy
31 - Sugar and Health

1991

30 - Legal Protection of Software
29 - DNA Profiling in Forensic Science
28 - Babies and HIV Infection
27 - Microbes in Food
26 - Patenting Life
25 - World Population
24 - High Definition TV
23 - Oil Fires in Kuwait - an Update
22 - British Technology Group
21 - Oil Fires in Kuwait
20 - Safety Critical Systems

1990

19 - Proliferation Control
18 - Antarctica
17 - National Curriculum and A Level Sciences
16 - Global Warming
15 - Understanding the Human Genome
14 - BSE and Slow Viruses
13 - Optical Fibre Networks
12 - Superconductivity
11 - Energy Efficiency
10 - Release of GMOs
9 - Computer Misuse
8 - Drinking Water Quality
7 - International Space Station

1989

6 - In Vitro Fertilisation and Embryo Research
5 - Decommissioning Nuclear Power Stations
4 - Implications of New Technologies in Clinical Testing
3 - Landfill Gas - Public Hazard or Valuable Resource?
2 - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
1 - Irradiation of Food

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