Brexit: the next steps for the UK’s withdrawal from the EU

The Commons Library and Lords Library has produced impartial analysis of the UK’s referendum for remaining in or leaving the European Union. The page sets out useful research on the impact of Brexit on key policy areas. It also explains the process for leaving the EU.

Business and trade

Debate pack on the effect of Brexit on agriculture and fisheries in SW England
This pack has been prepared ahead of the debate to be held in Westminster Hall at 4.30pm on 19 October on the effect of the UK leaving the EU on agriculture and fishing in the South West. The debate will be led by Scott Mann
(Published 14 October)

Potential effect of the UK leaving the EU on UK tourism
This debate pack was prepared ahead of the Westminster Hall debate held on 12 October. The debate focused on the potential effect of the UK leaving the EU on UK tourism and was initiated by Nigel Huddleston MP
(Published 04 October)

Trade aspects
This Commons Library briefing paper looks at possible options for the UK's trading relationship with the EU, post-Brexit.
(Published: 8 September)

Inquiry into creative industries, tourism and the digital single market
Culture, Media and Sport Committee inquiry invites written evidence on the following issues:

  • Employment in the creative industries
  • Employment in tourism
  • The Digital Single Market

Inquiry into EU Insurance Regulation
Treasury Committee inquiry into the new regime for the regulation of insurance, implemented in January 2016

Inquiry into the UK's future economic relationship with the EU
Treasury Committee inquiry  is taking further evidence on the trade-offs between market access and the practical consequences for people and businesses

What next for UK fisheries?
This Commons Library briefing looks at the implications of Brexit for fisheries. The implications will depend on future negotiations with the EU and future UK Government policy.
(Published: 28 July)


Defence and security after Brexit: a reading list
The Commons Library has compiled a selection of analysis and comment on defence and security related matters, relevant to the UK's forthcoming withdrawal from the European Union.
(Published: 19 October)

Economy and finance

Implications for the housing market and construction industry
This Commons Library briefing paper summarises very early indications of the impact of the vote on the UK housing market and house building industry. The topics covered include: construction industry confidence; the housing market; potential policy responses.
(Published 11 October)

EU budget and the UK's contribution
This Commons Library briefing considers the EU's spending and how it is financed. The paper also includes the UK's contributions and receipts to and from the EU budget and discusses the UK's rebate.
(Published: 22 September)

Brexit and financial services
This Commons Library briefing brings together some immediate responses from relevant organisations. The vote to leave the EU at an as yet unspecified date in the future has severe implications for the financial services sector, an economic sector which is critical to the UK economy. The degree of inter-linkage between the ‘City’ and the EU economies is substantial economically speaking and intricate in terms of the legislative interface.
(Published: 01 August)

UK tax after the EU referendum
This Commons Library briefing discusses the possible implications of the UK leaving the EU for the UK tax system
(Published: 14 July)


Inquiry on the impact of exiting the EU on higher education
Education Committee inquiry invites written submissions on the following:

  • On EU students studying in England
  • Places for existing EU students and staff
  • The future of the Erasmus+ programme
  • Risks and opportunities for UK students
  • How changes to freedom of movement may affect higher education institutions
  • How to ensure UK universities remain competitive
  • What the Government's education priorities should be during negotiations
  • How to mitigate any possible risks and take advantage of any opportunities

Health services

Inquiry into Brexit and health and social care
Health Committee inquiry into the priorities for health and social care in the negotiations on the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union.


Debate on right of EU nationals (19 October)
Opposition Day debate by the Scottish National Party on (i) Right of EU nationals (ii) House of Lords reform and the size of the House of Commons

How might people currently exercising free movement rights be affected?
This Commons Library briefing outlines how people, who are currently exercising free movement rights, might be affected by the UK’s Brexit decision.
(Published: 27 June)

Parliament, Government, legislation

Hilary Benn elected Chair of Exiting the European Union Committee (19 October)
Only Labour MPs are able to stand for the position as select committee chairs are allocated according to party

  • Hilary Benn 330 votes
  • Kate Hoey 209 votes

Westminster Hall debate on Brexit e-petitions (17 October)

  • E-petition 133618, entitled Invoke Article 50 of The Lisbon Treaty immediately
  • E-petition 125333, entitled Repeal the 1972 European Communities Act immediately on EU Referendum out vote
  • E-petition 123324, entitled The 23 June should be designated as Independence Day, and celebrated annually
  • E-petition 154593, entitled Not to allow freedom of movement as part of any deal with the EU after Brexit
  • E-petition 133767, entitled Ask the Government not to invoke article 50 of the Lisbon treaty
  • E-petition 133540, entitled Let Parliament decide whether or not we remain a member of the European Union

Brexit: employment law
This Library briefing paper discusses the interaction between UK and EU employment law; the potential consequences of Brexit; and the Government's position on the issue.
(Published: 12 October)

Brexit reading list: legal and constitutional issues
This Commons Library briefing provides information on and/or links to a selection of analysis and comment on: the referendum and triggering of Article 50; the possibility of a second referendum on a withdrawal agreement; the impact of Brexit on the rest of the EU; the UK’s future relations with the EU; issues for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
(Published 10 October)

Brexit: impact across policy areas
This Commons Library briefing looks at a range of policy areas and what impact Brexit might have. This will depend on Brexit negotiations, whether the UK stays in the EEA and how the Government fills the gaps left by withdrawal.
(Published: 26 August)

Brexit and local government
This Commons Library briefing looks at possible impact of exiting the EU on local authorities, with regard to devolution deals; EU structural funds; compliance with EU law; and medium-term financial implications.
(Published: 20 July)

Report on Equipping the Government for Brexit
Foreign Affairs Committee report recommending that the Government commits to a substantial increase in the funding available to the FCO commensurate with the enormity of the task it now faces.
(Published: 20 July 2016)

Implications of the referendum on EU membership for the UK's role in the world
Foreign Affairs Committee report which highlights the major issues voters may wish to consider when reaching their own conclusions on how “Brexit” might affect the UK’s role in the world
(Published: April 2016)


Implications for pensions
This Commons Library briefing paper brings together initial responses from relevant organisations on private and states pensions.
(Published: 10 August)

Science and environment

Inquiry into implications and opportunities for science and research
Science and Technology Committee inquiry seeking contributions on the risks and opportunities of leaving the EU, to allow the Committee produce a ‘Risk Assessment’ which should feature in the Government’s negotiating strategy

Inquiry into the future of the natural environment
Environmental Audit Committee inquiry will look at:

  • Future of funding for biodiversity and agri-environment schemes
  • Changes in the devolved administration
  • Role that managed re-wilding can play in conservation and restoration

Transport and infrastructure

How will it affect transport?
This Commons Library briefing paper discusses some of the issues in the four main transport policy areas:

  • State aid
  • Passenger rights and compensation
  • Airspace change and Single European Sky
  • Cheap flights
  • A new runway in the South East
  • General aviation
  • Rail interoperability/technical standards
  • Rail renationalisation
  • HS2
  • Rail fares
  • Road haulage
  • Driver licensing and testing
  • Vehicle standards
  • Blue Badges
  • Ports

(Published 25 July)

This information was published prior to the Referendum result.

Background to the UK’s EU referendum 2016

The page includes:

  • Analysis of the results
  • Eligibility to vote
  • Withdrawal process
  • Overview of policy areas
  • Devolved legislatures
  • Relevant legislation and debates
  • Background to negotiations

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