Brexit: How will it work?

What triggering article 50 means for the UK and its place in the EU, Europe and the world. Read analysis from Parliament's libraries and committees on the impact of Brexit.

Brexit: the July negotiations
What happened at the second round of Brexit negotiations from 17 to 20 July 2017?

Brexit negotiations: the Irish border question
Examines the future operation of the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in the context of the first phase of the Brexit negotiations

Brexit: the talks begin
Examines the initial stages of the negotiations and the key parties involved

Brexit: an overview
Examines the process of leaving the EU, the initial negotiating positions, and what ‘no deal’ would mean for the UK

Debate on the Address: Brexit and Foreign Affairs
A Commons Library briefing pack prepared in advance of the debate on 26 June
Brexit: red lines and starting principles (updated: 22 June 2017)
This briefing summarises the starting points of the UK and the EU institutions at the beginning of the Article 50 process

Queen's Speech 2017 Day 4: Exiting the European Union
Overview of the Government's approach to the Brexit negotiations

Brexit timeline: events leading to the UK’s exit from the European Union
Provides a timeline of the major events leading up to the EU referendum and subsequent dates of note, looking ahead to expected events

EU Agencies and post-Brexit options
This briefing examines the roles and functions of EU agencies, the issues surrounding the two UK-based agencies, and whether there are options for continued UK participation after Brexit

'No deal is better than a bad deal' claim unsubstantiated
Exiting the European Union Committee report says Government has not carried out economic assessment of 'no deal'

Crown Dependencies engagement with Brexit report
Justice Committee report says more clarity needed for the Crown Dependencies over Brexit

Foreign Affairs Committee: Article 50 negotiations
The report focuses on the implications of 'no deal' for the UK with reference to a range of different sectors, policy areas and circumstances

European Union Bill: analysis of Lords' amendments
Analyses the Lords’ new clauses on EU/EEA citizens in the UK and on a ‘meaningful vote’ at the end of the negotiations

Lords report on The 'Great Repeal Bill' and delegated powers
The Committee argues that the Government does not use delegated powers in the forthcoming ‘Great Repeal Bill’

European Union Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Summarises the debates in the House of Commons. Divisions were held at committee stage on:

  • Arrangements for parliamentary scrutiny of the Brexit negotiations
  • Status of EU nationals in the UK
  • Role and status of the Joint Ministerial Committee on EU Negotiations
  • EU funding in Wales
  • Northern Ireland and the Good Friday Agreement
  • Parliamentary votes to approve deals negotiated with the EU
  • ‘Resetting’ the UK’s membership of the EU if a deal was not negotiated within two years
  • The case for a deal to be approved by the British people in a referendum
  • Requiring the Government to report on the economic and financial impact of Brexit
  • Setting statutory negotiating objectives; maintaining EU tax avoidance and evasion measures
  • Role of Gibraltar in the Brexit process
  • Process for leaving Euratom

Parliament's role in ratifying treaties
Explains when and how the Government must lay most treaties before Parliament before it can ratify them

Background to the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill
What does the Bill do, why is it needed and can the Article 50 notice be revoked?

Brexit & Miller: what next for Parliament?
Blog looking at the Supreme Court ruling on whether primary legislation is required to trigger Article 50

Parliament's role in ratifying treaties
The UK Government must lay most treaties before Parliament for 21 sitting days before it can ratify them

Treaty negotiations: when has the Government published it position?
Examples of information the Government gave to Parliament in advance of treaty negotiations

Brexit and Parliament: deal or no deal?
Blog discussing Prime Minister, Theresa May's, speech about Brexit at Lancaster House

Brexit: how does the Article 50 process work?
Negotiation could last 2 years or more, or the UK could leave without settling its exit terms or its future relationship with the EU

Brexit: some legal, constitutional and financial unknowns
Looks at some of the basic ‘unknowns’ around the role for the UK Parliament and the devolved legislatures, relations with the EU institutions, the economic impact on the UK, and changes to citizens’ rights

UK proposals, legal impact of an exit and alternatives to membership
Considers some legal and constitutional issues, and possible alternatives to EU membership

Further reading

Brexit reading list: negotiations and future relations
Provides links to a selection of analysis and comment on how the UK Government and Parliament deal with EU legislation, the impact of Brexit on the rest of the EU and the UK’s future relations with the EU

Brexit reading list: general coverage (updated: 12 July 2017)
Links are provided to a selection of analysis and comment on general Brexit coverage

Brexit: a reading list of post-EU Referendum publications by Parliament and the Devolved Assemblies (updated: 8 August 2017)
Briefings on Brexit by the Parliamentary libraries and the Devolved Assembly research services as well as reports by Parliamentary and Devolved Assembly committees

Brexit reading list: legal and constitutional issues (updated: 2 May 2017)
Selection of analysis and comment on the referendum and triggering of Article 50, the impact on the rest of the EU as well as issues for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

Legislating for Brexit: EU directives
This briefing considers what will happen to EU directives when the UK leaves the EU and examines the EU directives currently in force in the UK

Report on justice for families, individuals and businesses
The report considers how the loss of important EU legislation will affect future legal proceedings on issues including divorce; custody of children; medical negligence claims and employment disputes

Legislating for Brexit: the Great Repeal Bill (updated: 2 May 2017)
This updated briefing includes references to the Government’s White Paper, addresses the three main elements of the Great Repeal Bill and examines how the Bill might address the status of EU-derived law post-Brexit. The Great Repeal Bill has not yet been published but is expected very soon after the Queen’s Speech on 19 June 2017.

Legislating for Brexit: Statutory Instruments implementing EU law
Looks at how the majority of EU directives are implemented in the UK and lists EU-related UK Statutory Instruments
(Please note: the appendix to this paper is over 200 pages long)

Legislating for Brexit: directly applicable EU law
Explains what ‘directly applicable’ EU law is, how it applies in the UK, and estimates how many EU regulations are in force
(Please note: the appendix to this paper is over 300 pages long)

Brexit and data protection
Discusses the current reform of EU data protection law, the interaction with UK law, and the potential consequences of Brexit

Brexit and the EU Court
Reviews the High Court ruling on prerogative power to trigger Article 50

EU Referendum: Government actions led to public distrust
Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Committee report says any future referendum should take note of the lessons learned from the Brexit referendum

Implications for the Scottish devolution settlement
Debate pack for Westminster Hall debate for 15 March 2017 at 4.30pm

Brexit: devolved legislature business
A record of Brexit-related business in the devolved legislatures.
(updated every Monday)

Impact across policy areas
How might Brexit impact on some major policy areas?

Brexit and local government
Impact on local authorities; devolution deal; EU structural funds; compliance with EU law; and medium-term financial implications

Report on Equipping the Government for Brexit
Report recommends the Government increases funding for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to deal with Brexit

European Union in 2017: key dates
Election dates in member states, European Council meetings, membership of the European Council

EU external agreements
How Brexit might affect EU external agreements with sections 2 and 3 listing bilateral and multilateral agreements

Future UK-EU Relationship
Potential options for the UK’s future relationship with the EU following the referendum vote


UK and Brexit: stay up to date

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News from across the House

News from across the House of Commons and House of Lords

Brexit glossary

List of commonly-used terms and acronyms, for example:

  • Article 50 TEU
  • Hard Brexit
  • Soft Brexit
  • Smooth Brexit
  • Red, white and blue Brexit
  • Great Repeal Bill

Background to the referendum

Reports and briefings on the UK's EU referendum 2016

Author information

Commons and Lords Library service

Authors of the research briefings are available to discuss them with Members and their staff. The research briefings are published to the UK Parliament website.

Select Committees

Both Houses establish select committees to conduct inquiries and to produce reports on a range of matters, from the conduct of Government to specialist subject areas. Information on their work can be found on the website.

Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST)

POST provides research from across the biological, physical and social sciences, and engineering and technology

Image copyright

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