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13 Bills became Acts of Parliament (law) on 12 November and are the final Bills enacted during the 2008-09 parliamentary session.
Royal Assent for each Bill took place during the prorogation announcement in the House of Lords Chamber.
Royal Assent is usually notified to each House separately and, once given Royal Assent, the Bills become Acts of Parliament.
At prorogation (the formal end to a parliamentary year), Black Rod interrupts the proceedings of the Commons and summons MPs to the Lords Chamber to hear the Lords Commissioners announce Royal Assent for each Bill.
After Royal Assent
The legislation within the Bill may commence immediately, after a set period or only after a commencement order by a Government minister.
A commencement order is designed to bring into force the whole or part of an Act of Parliament at a date later than the date of the Royal Assent.
If there is no commencement order, the Act will come into force from midnight at the start of the day of the Royal Assent.
The practical implementation of an Act is the responsibility of the appropriate government department, not Parliament.
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